MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19

The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester.

The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI’s website.

To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here.

Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:

  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics

As well as each document is available for single purchase.

The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future.

Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced.

MATH 001 In the Beginning – Summary

MATH 002 Fabled Lands – Summary

MATH 003 Legendary Voyages – Summary

MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers – Summary

MATH 005 Maritime History – Summary

MATH 006 Nautical Custom – Summary

MATH 007 Life at Sea – Summary

MATH 008 Famous Captains – Summary

MATH 009 Mutinies – Summary

MATH 010 Big Ships – Summary

MATH 011 Death and Disaster – Summary

MATH 012 Navigable Waters – Summary

MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors – Summary

MATH 014 Criminals – Summary

MATH 015 Myths – Summary

MATH 016 Mysteries – Summary

MATH 017 Monsters – Summary

MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea – Summary

MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs – Summary

MATH 020 Famous Ships – Summary

MATH 021 Battles – Summary


Dec 30
Posted by lfpl Filed in Decks, Parts of the Ship


Masts belong to the outer deck of sailing ships. On taller sailing ships, they extend straight up vertically off the upper or main deck. A mast-like pole called the Extended off of the masts would be sails and rigging. On tall sailing ships, from the bow (front) to stern (back) are several tall masts. These are the bowsprit, foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast. The bowsprit extends horizontally or angled upwards from the bow, and while it has some purposes similar to a mast, is different than most of the other masts. Masts can range in shapes and sizes, from vertical, horizontal, near vertical, spar, an arrangement of spars, or tall – all of which exist to support the sails. The larger the ship, generally the more the masts. Nearly all of the masts in tall ships are guyed masts. Pre-19th century, most masts were wooden formed from a single piece of timber typically a trunk of a conifer tree, especially from the 16th-18th century as being a single tall trunk of a tree. In ships after the 19th century, the foremast and mainmast are usually made from three pieces of timber on the large ships, while the mizzenmast are made from two pieces of lumber. To achieve the required heights, masts are built from up to four sections known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top, topgallant, and royal masts. Single pieces of timber masts are called “pole masts”. By the 1930’s, especially in yachts, aluminum masts were introduced on smaller crafts. They became advantageous on smaller vessels because they were lighter, slimmer, impervious to rot, and can be produced as a single extruded length. By World War II, they were common on all smaller yachts and dingies.

  • Foremast: first mast, or mast fore of the main mast.
  • Main Mast: tallest mast, usually at ship center.
  • Mizzen Mast: Third mast, usually immediately aft of the main mast. Typically it is shorter than the foremast.
  • Jigger Mast: the shortest, the aft-most mast on vessels with more than three masts.

On the HMB Endeavour, the masts are made of laminated Douglas Fir. The Original HMS Endeavour’s masts would have been either fir or spruce. The Endeavour had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour –
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia

    1998: “His Majesty’s Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people”. Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

    2011 Website Referenced: ~ “Captain Cook”, “HMB Endeavour”, “HMS Endeavour”, “Joseph Banks”, “Solander”.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author’s expense. If you donate below, you’ll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer’s base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper or Main Deck

Dec 30
Posted by lfpl Filed in Decks, Ships

HMB Endeavour In-Depth: Upper Deck or Main Deck:
HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

The Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour is the top floor of the ship open to the elements underneath the sails. It is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour. The bowsprit and masts, as well as the decks and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir. The Original HMS would have also been fir or spruce. The ship’s keel, frame, and lower hull is made of Western Australian jarrah while the original HMS would have been oak or elm. The HMB’s sails are made of synthetic canvas called Duradon which has the same feel and appearance that the original flax canvas on the HMS would have been like. The rigging consists of over 18 miles (29 kilometers) of rope. There were six anchors on the original HMS, four of which were located on the bow. The two largest, would each weigh just under a ton, and would be at the front of the bow. The original HMS would have been painted with the Royal Naval colors of blue, yellow, and black with the sides shining of varnished pine. The ship would have at that time flown the Red Ensign as a converted merchant collier into a King’s ship. This appearance caused problems for the ship when arriving in some ports, especially at Rio de Janeiro thinking they be British spies or pirates causing them to be denied permission to land. She had three masts, and was rigged carrying square sails on each mast. There originally was no figurehead, though the quarter windows had been decorated with carved badge and the stern with other simple carvings. For the HMB, these were recreated based off of crew artist Sydney Parkinson drawings. The original HMS would have had sweeps
(large oars) for emergency maneuvers.

    Terms of orientation on the decks:

  • Aft: Towards the rear of the ship.
  • Bow: The Front of the ship.
  • Forward: Towards the Front of the ship.
  • Port: Left side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Starboard: Right side of the ship while facing the bow.
  • Stern: Rear of the ship.


Here at the front of the ship, or the “Bow” is where the two largest anchors (each weighing just under a ton) would be located. Those found here on the HMB were replicated and based off those found from the 1770 shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef believed to have belonged to the original HMS. The anchors are raised and released by means of the catheads which are the large black timbers extending forward of the bow, one on each side of the bowsprit. These are pulled up using the windlass. The windlass is a horizontal winch that is turned manually by the crew’s manual labor, by use of the long wooden bars located just front of the waist of the ship. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by the crew in the original days. The modern HMB has flushing toilets down on the 20th century deck. As toilet paper was not used back in the day of the HMS, rags or frayed ends of rope would be used to wipe with sea water. The ship’s bell, was used to tell the time of day for all the crew and officer’s to be guided by. The bell would be struck each half hour. Most crew would have a watch of four hours. A four hour watch was comprised of one to eight bell rings. One hour is indicated by two bell strikes struck close together.

  • 1 bell ~ 12:30 or 16:30
  • 2 bells ~ 13:00 or 17:00
  • 3 bells ~ 13:30 or 17:30
  • 4 bells ~ 10:00 or 14:00 or 18:00
  • 5 bells ~ 10:30 or 14:30
  • 6 bells ~ 11:00 or 15:00
  • 7 bells ~ 11:30 or 15:30
  • 8 bells ~ 12:00 or 16:00


This is the section of the main deck where the long boat would be stored. It is also where alot of the riggings and ropes would be tied. It is the area inbetween the masts.

Read About the Quarter Deck, Helm, and More Photos: Read the rest of this entry »