MATH Marine Anthropology Modules

Nov 19
The Posts on this page are the summaries for the courses developed by Marine Archaeologist Yvonne-Cher Skye while living aboard the Mary and Bill of Rights in Chula Vista, California, U.S.A.. It consists of 21 aspects of Marine Anthropology which can be taught in a seminar single-day format or over an 18-week semester. The supplemental materials will be available for purchase via paypal or credit card on her webpage located at the YGFI- Your Girl Friday International Website.  Links to individual modules and their introductions will be posted on this page, as well as on the Skye Research Page on YGFI's website. To gain a better understanding of the courses that are offered, please read the introduction page here. Follow the links to the other posts which will provide links to the specific page on the website to purchase that module.  At the present time, they are provided as an entire package, which includes:
  • Course Outline
  • Glossary
  • Module
  • Notes
  • References available
  • Websites
  • Summary of course to promote to students and the public
  • Handouts
  • Video list of related topics
As well as each document is available for single purchase. The purpose of these modules is to provide an unique educational opportunity which does not require formal educational training to conduct the course.  The idea of providing so many supplemental materials is to ensure satisfaction of the attendees of the course, as well as the boards or governing bodies of any organization that chooses to add these courses to their existing programs.  As stated in the introduction module this is only the skeleton of the courses, and it can stand alone as an introductory course, further more advanced courses will be developed in the future. Ms. Skye has also developed modules for Climatology, Marine Science, and soon to be announced. MATH 001 In the Beginning - Summary MATH 002 Fabled Lands - Summary MATH 003 Legendary Voyages - Summary MATH 004 Sea Quests, Famous Expeditions and Explorers - Summary MATH 005 Maritime History - Summary MATH 006 Nautical Custom - Summary MATH 007 Life at Sea - Summary MATH 008 Famous Captains - Summary MATH 009 Mutinies - Summary MATH 010 Big Ships - Summary MATH 011 Death and Disaster - Summary MATH 012 Navigable Waters - Summary MATH 013 Castaways and Survivors - Summary MATH 014 Criminals - Summary MATH 015 Myths - Summary MATH 016 Mysteries - Summary MATH 017 Monsters - Summary MATH 018 Wraiths of the Sea - Summary MATH 019 Superstitions and Beliefs - Summary MATH 020 Famous Ships - Summary MATH 021 Battles - Summary

Bronze Age Boat to be Launched into the Unknown

Mar 10
cross posted from http://news.yahoo.com/press-call-first-experimental-archaeology-bronze-age-boat-171213120.html?goback=.gde_815227_member_217483070  

Press Call: A First for Experimental Archaeology -

Bronze Age Boat to be Launched into the Unknown PRWeb – Thu, Feb 28, 2013
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   A unique project to recreate a 4000 year old boat will reach its dramatic conclusion on Wednesday 6 March as she is launched into the waters of Falmouth Harbour.

Falmouth, Cornwall (PRWEB UK) 25 February 2013 A first for experimental archaeology and a first for the National Maritime Museum Cornwall, the 50ft long 5 tonne prehistoric boat has been reconstructed as part of a collaborative project with the University of Exeter. A team of volunteers, led by shipwright Brian Cumby, have spent the last year building this one of a kind craft out of two massive oak logs using replica methods and tools, such as bronze headed axes.

Project director Prof Robert Van de Noort from the University of Exeter says: “The launch really is the moment of truth for this project. The very nature of an experiment means that we can’t know for sure what will happen. The boat has already given us a few surprises along the way, so the launch really is a leap into the unknown.”

Where:    The slipway between Falmouth Watersports Centre and the National Maritime Museum Cornwall in Falmouth When:    Wednesday 6 March, 12 noon Contact:    Michael Sweeney michaelsweeney(at)nmmc(dot)co.uk 01326 214558 or Tamsin Loveless tamsinloveless(at)nmmc(dot)co.uk 01326 214536 NB: The launch really is in the lap of the gods. High winds or torrential rain may force the launch to be delayed but if the gods are smiling on us it will be a sight to behold! Note to Editor: Find out more about this project on its dedicated Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/2012BCBronzeAgeBoat And view time lapse footage of the entire project at http://www.youtube.com/falmouthvideos Michael Sweeney National Maritime Museum Cornwall 01326 214558 Email Information

swinging cot

Jul 13
Posted by lfpl Filed in Life on the Sea, Parts of the Ship
Aboard many of the tall sailing ships were portable "hammock" beds, similar to "camp beds" that were usually used for officers, captains, first and second mates, or militia on board. These were more comfortable that cloth hammocks, giving more stability with the "cot" construct. They were simple construct, temporary, and could be moved or relocated. These were generally consisting of a foldable lightweight wood or metal frame, covered with canvas, linen or nylon suspended from the roof which made it swing.

cannons

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

CANNONS, SHIP:

Cannons are large pieces of artillery that uses projectiles and gunpowder. They can vary is size, range, caliber, mobility, rate/angle/type of fire, and firepower. Those on ships are usually a bit smaller than those used on land. The first use by Europeans was probably in Iberia in the 13th century. They have become very popular equipment aboard merchant, pirate, and military vessels during expeditions from the 16th-18th century.

Aboard the Upper Deck or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour are numerous cannons and swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small to large shots. The swivel guns could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. As per cannons, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "cannons". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

swivel guns

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Defense, Parts of the Ship

SWIVEL GUNS:

Along the sides of tall sailing ships were often found small cannons called "swivel guns". These were very popular from the 16th-18th centuries of sailing history. They were mounted on a small swiveling stand or fork which allowed for a wide arc of movement. These are often also detachable and can move from the host main ship to the long boat. They typically measure around 3 feet in length (1 meter) with a bore diameter of 1 1/4 inch (3.5 cm). They would be used to shoot a wide variety of ammo, but atypically would fire grapeshot or small diameter shot such as small caliber round shot. Most of these guns are muzzle loaded. Breech loaded guns had a breech shaped like a beer mug, where the shooter would take the handle and insert into the body of the gun with the breech's opening facing forwards. Gunpowder, then projectiles were loaded into the breech, then aimed and fired. Very common on sailing ships as short-range anti-personnel ordinances rather than causing damage to opposing ships. Some swivel guns have been used to fire harpoons during whaling expeditions. The very first swivel gun known was from China in 1520. By 1560's, the swivel gun was introduced to Europe and Korea.

Aboard the Upper or Main Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, along the sides of the ship are swivel guns used to defend the ship from hostiles by firing small shots. These could be moved to the longboat and mounted there when the crew went ashore. The HMS had 12, the HMB replica only has 10. In addition to the swivel guns, there would be four-pounder cannons or guns that would fire 4 pound cannon balls for defense. The original HMS had 10, but six were thrown overboard when it ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef to help lighten the ship. These were recovered in the 1970's discovery of them and are what the HMB's cannons are based after. The HMB still ofter fire them when arriving or departing ports, using traditional black powder. They are also decorated with King George II crown and cipher weights, broad arrow and other markings.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "swivel guns". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

binnacle

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE BINNACLE:

The binnacle, usually near the steering wheel, is a shelf/cabinet used to hold the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass. It is also usually a waist high case or stand on the deck of the ship, mounted in front of the captain or helmsman, upon or within which navigational instruments are placed for quick and easy reference. Early binnacles were made of timber and nails, but were found later to have caused magnetic deviations in compass readings. This was fixed by John Gray of Liverpool in 1854 by incorporating adjustable correcting magnets on screws or rack and pinions.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel is the binnacle. This would also have been located near the hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


The Wheel or Helm, & capstan, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "binnacle". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

hutch

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE HUTCH:

What is referred to as the Ship's Hutch was nothing more than a cabinet with a set of shelves, drawers, or a larger cabinet where poultry was kept on board.

Aboard the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, near the steering Wheel or helm is the "hutch". There would have been a hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel.

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "hutch". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

capstan

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE CAPSTAN:

A large winch that has a vertical axis and used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and is also utilized in manuevering the ship while at anchor. It is a vertical axled rotating wheel developed for tall sailing ships to apply force to cables, ropes, and hawsers. It operates similar the windlass which is a horizontal winch of like-fashion. The word comes from the French "capestan" meaning "pulley cord" and the latin "capistrum" meaning to "take hold of". The word itself is believed to be of Spanish invention. The earliest capstans were often large timbers mounted vertically through a vessel's structure that was free to rotate. It had levers or bars affixed through holes at the top of the timber used to turn the capstan. Ropes wrapped several turns around the drum was then hauled upon and wound in a clockwise direction. These earlier models, evolved to wooden drums or barrels mounted on a iron axle which allowed crew to be on two decks to apply force to the bars. These later evolved to iron construction, with gearing in the head allowing mechanical use when the bars are pushed counter-clockwise. Shafts and gears for mechanization are usually found below deck. Modern capstans are powered hydraulically, electrically, or mechanically via a engine.

Atop the Quarter Deck of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour, resides the "capstan". This is at the stern of the boat. The capstan is a winch that has a vertical axis used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and utilized in maneuvering the ship while at anchor. Ten bars would be inserted and pushed in by crew and on the original HMS be solely worked by the crew's manual labor. Today on the HMB this is still done during rigging work.


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

This article is by Thomas Baurley, volunteer tour guide of the HMB Endeavour while in port at Brisbane, Australia, and crew member during the 2011-2012 circumnavigation of Australia - for the Brisbane to Gladstone leg of the journey (April-May 2011).

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "capstan". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

tiller

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Parts of the Ship

THE TILLER:

The tiller is a heavy timber beam that is attached to the stern post and rudder. It is connected to the wheel by tackles and rope. It is a lever attached to the rudder post or stock and is classic to tall sailing ships. It is used by the captain or helmsman by directly pulling or pushing it, but can be moved remotely via the tiller lines. Rapid or excessive movement will cause increased drag and will brake or slow the boat. When used for steering, its always moved in the direction opposite of which the bow of the boat is to move. So if the tiller is moved to port side (left), the bow will turn to starboard (right). If tiller is moved to starboard, the bow will turn port. Sailing students use the phrase "Tiller Towards Trouble" to help them remember.

On top of the Quarter Deck or stern area of the HMB Endeavour, which is architecturally based over the original drawings of the HMS Endeavour near the Wheel or "helm" which is manned by two crew men at all times - one on each side of it. This "wheel" is connected to the tiller by ropes run around the wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. On the HMB, there is a "kick-up" on the tiller that allows it to pass over the chimney from the Great Cabin's stove. The capstan is a winch that has a vertical axis used to hoist heavy spars, yards, and utilized in maneuvering the ship while at anchor. Ten bars would be inserted and pushed in by crew and on the original HMS be solely worked by the crew's manual labor. Today on the HMB this is still done during rigging work.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Tiller". en.wikipedia.org.


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?

Wheel or Helm

Dec 31
Posted by lfpl Filed in Parts of the Ship


The Wheel or Helm, & Tiller, HMB Endeavour
Eagle Pier, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

THE WHEEL OR HELM:

Atop the "Quarter Deck", usually just on the edge of the ship's waist and stern of the ship is the "helm" or the "wheel" of the ship, used for steering and navigation. This is home to the Wheel or "helm" which on tall sailing ships, is manned by two sailors at all times - one on each side of it. The stern and around the helm was also restricted to the Captain and officers. Any other crew would have to ask permission to be at the stern. From this vantage point, the officer would have a great view of the decks, sails, and crew. This "wheel" is connected to the tiller by ropes run around the wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. In combination of the rudder, tiller, and wheel - the ship would be steered. This combination would move the rudder that actually steers the ship. The sweep of the tiller and the ropes made the quarter deck difficult to walk across. Sometimes a "whipstaff" was used instead of a tiller, and this was a vertical stick acting on a tiller. Earlier sailing ships operated to correspond to the motion of the tiller, with a clockwise motion, turning the rudder and thus the ship to the left. The control direction of the wheel was reversed later after the 17th century to make it more consistent with the operations of a motor vehicle's steering wheel.

Modern ships used the steering wheel in the same regard, to adjust the angle of the boat or ship's rudder to force the vessel to change its course. Modern wheels are connected to a mechanical, hydraulic, or electric system and sometimes rather than using a wheel would have a toggle that remotely controls a electro-mechanical drive for the rudder.

Atop the Upper or Main Deck of the HMS Endeavour, is the ship's helm or wheel. This is towards the stern of the ship (rear). The wheel is connected to the tiller by ropes run around a wooden drum up and through a set of blocks. On the HMB, there is a "kick-up" on the tiller that allows it to pass over the chimney from the Great Cabin's stove. Near to the wheel would be the hutch on the original HMS that would have been where the poultry would have been kept in front of the wheel. Also near the wheel would be the binnacle which would house the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass.

For more Information About The Living History Museum on board the replica of the HMS Endeavour -
The HMB Endeavour, while docked in port at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Bibliography/Recommended Reading:

  • Australian National Maritime Museum
    2011: Guide Handbook. ( Issued during HMB Endeavour Around Australia 2011-2012: Voyage of a Lifetime ). ANMM: Sydney, Australia.
  • Macarthur, Antonia
    1998: "His Majesty's Bark Endeavour: The Story of the ship and her people". Angus & Robertson/ Harper Collins; ANMM: Sydney, Australia. ISBN: 0207191808.
  • Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
    2011 Website Referenced: ~ "Captain Cook", "HMB Endeavour", "HMS Endeavour", "Helm", "Steering wheel". en.wikipedia.org.

Photos are copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission of authors Tom Baurley or Leaf McGowan. Photos can be purchased via Technogypsie.com at Technogypsie Photography Services for nominal use fees. Articles and Research papers are done at the Author's expense. If you donate below, you'll help contribute to the costs of the research that provided this article. Any Reviews can request a re-review if they do not like the current review or would like to have a another review done. If you are a business, performer, musician, band, venue, or entity that would like to be reviewed, you can also request one (however, travel costs, cost of service (i.e. meal or event ticket) and lodging may be required if area is out of reviewer's base location at time of request).

These articles are done by the writer at no payment. If you enjoy this article and want to see more, why not buy our writer a drink or meal to motivate them to write more? or help cover the costs they went through to do this research?