Category Archives: Hawaii

Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea


Big Island

Mauna Kea means “Mountain of the Deity Wakea” or “White Mountain”. It is one of the major 5 shield volcanoes that creates the Hawaiian Islands. The others in this chain are Kohala, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea. It is inactive. It is often called “White Mountain” because of it being consistently covered with snow during winter. Its peak reaches 13,803 feet above sea level but looms 33,476 feet above the ocean floor making it the world’s tallest mountain by that measurement if you disclude the ocean. Doing so, makes it taller than Mount Everest.
Mauna Kea is home to the infamous and highest of cinder cones known as Pu’u Wekiu or Pu’u o Kukahau’ula, which is the highest point in the state. This volcano is in the post-shield stage of volcanic evolution transitioning from the shield stage roughly 250,000 years ago. During its shield stage it is theoreticized to have appeared similar to Mauna Loa as a smooth shield volcano with a large summit caldera. The summit was entirely covered by a massive ice cap during the Pleistocene ice ages and displays evidence of four periods of glaciation over the last 200,000 years that ended around 11,000 years ago with the last glaciation. Its dense rock at its summit, called the “Mauna Kea Adz Quarry” is believed to have formed when lava erupted under a glacier. Towards its top is the seventh highest lake in the U.S. called “Lake Waiau”. Also at the summit is a celestial observatory that has been considered the best astronomical site in the world since it resides above 40% of the Earth’s atmosphere and 90% of the water vapor allowing for an exceptional clear view of the night sky. Local legends place Mauna Kea as the home of the snow Goddess “Poliahu” and many other deities making it an important mecca site for prayer, burials, consecration of children, and traditional celestial observations.


Big Island

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Hawi

Hawi


Big Island


On the west side of Kappau is the small locale that is roughly 1.2 square miles known as “Hawi” on the Big Island of Hawai’i. It is the northernmost city on Hawai’i and is the largest city in North Kohala. In 2000 it had a population of 938. The town and area was popular as a big commercial center for sugar plantations, most notably the “Kohala Sugar Plantation”. When the Plantation closed down in the 1970’s … the town dried up and became an art center of sorts. The town is filled with art galleries, artists, and a couple of restaurants. This is also the famed location and birthplace of “Kamehameha I” and is the location of the Mo’okini heiau that is part of the Kohala Historical Sites State Monument. The town still houses a few historic buildings that have remained standing since the mid-1800’s such as the Rev. Elisa Bond’s Estate. The area also provides a small plane airport known as “Upolu” here where sightseeing flights depart from. You can get to the area from Highway 270 north from Kawaihae, located by mile marker 22 just before Kap’au.

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Huggo’s On the Rocks (Kona, Big Island, Hawaii)


Huggo’s on the Rocks, Kona

Huggo’s On the Rocks
* http://www.huggos.com/ * 75-5828 Kahakai Road Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 * (808) 329-1493 * Fax # (808)329-7204 **
A great casual bar in the heart of Kona on the Big Island of Hawaii. Definitely idolic of the ‘beach’ bar atmosphere and setting – this ocean-front cocktail bar and pub is an off-shoot of the Huggo’s Restaurant next door. My one and only visit found it to be very friendly, hospitable, with great service and good bar staff. The patrons all looked happy and satisfied. The drinks served to us were good – though not as potent as I’m used to. They had a live band this saturday night, even though the town closes early on the entertainment front. But dancing and fun had by all. They don’t really have an official “closing” hour – they are just open from 11:30 am until ‘closing’ – whatever that normally means – was quite early the saturday of August 8th, 2009. Generally they have entertainment nightly from 6:30 pm – 10 pm, and serve cocktails from 11:30 am until midnight. Rating: 4 stars out of 5.

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Outrigger Hotel – Kona, Big Island, Hawaii


Outrigger Hotel, Kona

Outrigger Hotel
* 78-261 Manukai Street, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 96740 * Toll-free U.S., Canada, Guam: 800-959-5662 or local: 808-322-9625
* http://www.outrigger.com/hotels-resorts/hawaiian-islands/hawaii-big-island/outrigger-kanaloa-at-kona *

A beautiful, elegant, and spacious resort located on 18 acres of ocean-front lava rock beach that overlooks stunning Keauhou Bay. The hotel and resort is encircled by well groomed gardens that create a nice private space with tall coconut palms, tropical blossoms, soft grasses, and lush lauae ferns. Inside the hotel are roomy condo units with open-beamed ceilings and spacious covered balconies with breath-taking views of the sea. Condos are available in 1 and 2 bedrooms, or a 2-bedroom with loft units. Each room is breeze cooled with ceiling fans, though some units have air conditioning upon request. Free wireless internet is available in the lobby, swimming pool area, and other areas of the resort. The hotel is home to three swimming pools, five barbeque grills, two tennis courts, connection to the Kona Country Club which has a 36-hole golf course, and is connected to a public beach which is well-known as a spectacular snorkeling site on Kealakekua Bay as well as the Puuhonua o Honaunau National Histori Park. Resort requires a two-night minimum to book a room and a three-night minimum on U.S. holiday weekends. While I did not stay at the hotel and only visited the resort during the day – I was impressed, even though I thought it was rather expensive. Cannot comment on staying in the condo-rooms, but the resort was A+. Rating: 4.5 stars out of 5.


Outrigger Hotel, Kona

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Pu-ukohola heiau National Historic Site / Kohala


Big Island


Pu-ukohola heiau National Historic Site / Kohala

Kona, Big Island, Hawaii

Pu’ukohola Heiau National Historic Site is located right off to the side of the infamous Outrigger Hotel. It is a National Register historic site that preserves the ruins of one of Hawaii’s most major native temples. The temple existed from the time that Kamehameha I took control of northern and western Hawaii in 1782 and was attacked by his cousin Keoua Kuahu’ula who controlled the eastern side of the island. Eight years of fighting through to 1790, this temple was built to gain the favor of the war god Kuka’ilimoku in order to assist in the conflicts. The temples name means “Temple on the Hill of the Whale” because it was built on an older 1580 temple, by hand, with no mortar, in less than a year. Red stones were professed to be transported by a human chain about 14 miles long from the Pololu Valley in the East. The ship “Fair American” was captured in 1790 with a surviving crew member named Isaac Davis after the incident at Olowalu, who became military advisors to King Kamehameha teaching his army the use of muskets and mounted cannons giving defeat to the invaders. The temple was finished in the summer of 1791 measuring 224 x 100 feet. The battle took place in 1791 when the temple was finished and Kamehameha summoned his cousin Keoua Kuahu-ula for a peace treaty which resulted in a surrender after losses in the Battle of Hilo and the volcanic eruptions that destroyed many troops. His soldiers were sacrificed to the temple. Today the site is blocked off as there is believede to still be bones buried at the site. Just offshore from the temple is Hale o Kapuni, an underwater structure dedicated to sharks. There is a visitor center on site, as well as an interpretive trail, even though entering the temple itself is not permitted. About 170 feet west of the temple are the ruins of the earlier Mailekini Heiau which was later converted by John Young into a fort to protect the harbor. The site became a National Historic Landmark on October 15, 1966.

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Fish Hoppers, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii


Fish Hoppers, Kona


Fish Hoppers
Kona, Big Island * http://www.fishhopper.com/kona/ * 75-5683 Alii Dr, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii 96740 * 808.326.2002 *
A great little seafood / steak restaurant and bar as you enter into the active strip of downtown Kona. They have good service and some pretty decent dishes. Cocktails are tasty too. Great views of the ocean and a good place to begin your adventure into Kona. Seats by the windows overlook Kailua Bay allowing great visuals of the ocean, beach, and walkways – great for people watching. They carry sustainable seafood from Hawaii as well as fresh seafood flown in weekly from California. They carry a variety from seasonal Dungeness crabs, sand dabs, petrali sole, Alaskan Halibut, Corvena Sea Bass, Wild Salmon, calamari, and other local favorites. They are notorious for their signature “Bucket of Fire” and “Volcano” flaming drinks. The restaurant is within walking distance to many shops and historic sites. The building is a landmark (Ocean View Inn) and a favorite restaurant of the area since 1934. The Fish Hopper is a chain from California run by the Sabu Shake and family. Rating: 4 stars out of 5.


Fish Hoppers, Kona

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Kealakekua Bay Historical Park and Beach


Kealakekua Bay Historical Park across from Captain Cook, Kona

Kealakekua Bay Historical Park and Beach
Kona, Big Island, Hawaii
A great little cove across from the ever-so-famous Captain Cook Cove and diving hotspot on the Kona coast, Big Island, Hawaii. It is located roughly 12 miles south of Kailua-Kona. The area was settled over a thousand years ago so is dotted with ancient temples, archaeological and historical sites serving as a historical district and marine life conservation district. This little park is a great set-in for doing kayaking, scuba diving, and some deeper water reef snorkeling as well as swimming with dolphins. While the dolphins weren’t out when we were snorkeling on this 8th of August in 2009, I’ve heard that it is a popular place to chance the encounters. The parking lot is small and parking is not so easily obtained, but its secluded. There is a small park with picnic tables, restrooms, and a place to relax, with a decent beach and the reefs to explore. Spinner Dolphins are the most common swimmers in the area as they come to the area to rest, feed, and nurse. About 180 acres around the bay is designated as a State Historic Park (1967) and is part of the National Register. The area has a very intriguing history, focusing on the Hikiau Heiau Luakini Temple at the south end of the bay with its burial grounds, the Pali Kapu O Keoua (forbidden cliffs of Keoua) and its associated burials, the village of Ka’awaloa (north end of the bay) where Puhina O Lono Heiau was built with royal residences, and the Kava plant. The name of the Bay comes from “Ke ala ke kua” meaning “The God’s Pathway”. The first European visitors in the area was in 1779 via Captain James Cook and his ships the Resolution and Discovery in January. Later that month he performed the first Christian service on the islands for a crew member that had passed. He was welcomed during January, but his return in February saw conflict. A skirmish took place where Cook was struck in the head and stabbed – leading to his death. Many battles ensued in the area through the years. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.


Coral reef pictures
Kealakekua Bay Historical Park across from Captain Cook, Kona

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Kailua Kona


Kona

Kailua Kona
Big Island, Hawaii
An interesting little resort town on one of the coasts of Big Island, Hawaii. While it doesn’t seem very populated, it is one of the Big Island’s most popular cities as well as one of its largest (census 2000: population 9,870). Its one of the main spots where tourists go for rest, relaxation, and a night life. My visit was a day onwards into the evening … dropping by for a seafood lunch, snorkeling the reefs, lounging in the sun, exploring an old fort, seeing sea turtles, and frolicking around with cocktails meeting some of the locals. I enjoyed the town, but wasn’t impressed with its weekend nightlife offerings. Definitely more low-key than I’m used to. Kona is the center of commerce and tourism in West Hawaii.
The proper name for the area is “Kailua-Kona” (according to the post office to differentiate itself from the larger Kailua on windward Oahu) though most popularly known as “Kona Town” or “Kona”. It houses its own airport and with Hilo make up the air traffic for the island. The area was first established by King Kamehameha I as the homeplace for the government as well as the capital of the newly unified Kingdom of Hawaii. (Capital moved to Lahaina then to Honolulu at later dates) From its inception until the late 1900’s, Kona served primarily as a small fishing village but then overwent a humongous construction boom fueled by tourism and commerce. Kona keeps a pretty warm temperature annually – the coldest month is february with a average high of 82 degrees Fahrenheit an an average low of 67 degrees Fahrenheit. August is the warmest month with an average high of 88 degrees Fahrenheit and an average low of 74 degrees. The area is susceptible to vog (volcanic smoke/fog) from Kilauea. Kona is most popular for its coffee that comes from a variety of Coffea arabica cultivated on the slopes of Mount Hualalai and Mauna Loa. The most popular area of Kona is Ali’i Drive which is Kailua’s oceanfront downtown street beginning at the Kailua Pier towards historic spots southwards including the Ahu’ena Heiau, Kamakahonu royal residence, Hulihe’e Palace, Historic Kona Inn, Mokuaikaua Church, La’aloa Bay, Kahulu’u Bay, and a historic fort.


Big Island

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Roadside Markers and Graves in Hawaii


Roadside marker and grave between Punalu’u and Kona

Roadside Markers and Graves in Hawaii
All along Route 11 on the Big Island of Hawaii are memorial markers, monuments, and graves for those who have lost their lives. In addition to the monuments are quite a few roadside cemeteries. Above is one of the most interesting ones I encountered in Hawaii, it was a tree, decorated with all the seasons – you could find Halloween memorabilia, Easter, Xmas, etc. Not quite sure who it was dedicated to. But is a great example of the roadside markers. These are commemoratives usually to pay tribute to someone who has passed either suddenly or unexpectedly while away from home. The memorials/markers are not grave site headstones marking where the body/ies lay, but rather often where they died or the last place they were alive. This is usually put together by family or friends and consist of a cross, a bunch of flowers taped to trees or road signs, signs, piles of rocks, or some sort of marker – sometimes with a handwritten message and personal mementos. This is a pretty common tradition throughout the world’s cultures, especially modern culture, replacing the fact that people can’t be buried anymore where they died. In the United States, one theory points to coming from early hispanic settlers of the Southwestern United States often on long trails, though earlier were actual grave markers for the burial then incorporating the practice of a monument or marker since funerary laws changed the ability to bury their dead where they fell. The modern evolution of this practice is very common where car crashes occured and a person died. There are descansos constructed in similar style often decorated specially for holidays or special anniversaries in a person’s life. For children, often with their toys, or votives added for special occasions. The practice sprung up in Australia and has been estimated to be 1 in 5 road deaths to be memorialized at the site of the crash, especially since 1990. They are legally protected in the State of New Mexico from being altered or touched, even by road construction while they are banned in Colorado, Massachusetts, and Wisconsin. California charges residents a $1,000 to permit one.


Graveyard along highway between Punalu’u and Kona

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Punalu’u Bake Shop


Punalu’u Bake Shop

Punalu’u Bake Shop

http://www.bakeshophawaii.com/ * Route 11 * Na`alehu (Big Island), Hawai`i 96772 * 1-866-366-3501 *
The most notorious “Southern-most Bakery in the United States” at Latitude 19 North of the Equator, is the Punalu’u Bake Shop off Route 11. An excellent stop off after seeing the sea turtles and black sand beaches in the area. The bakery specializes in Hawaiian Sweet Break which was introduced via Portugese sugar plantation workers in the 19th century. The Bake shop has adopted this import as their speciality, enhanced by their own traditional family recipe which takes 5 hours to produce. This Bakery was established in 1991 on the site of a former sugar plantation owner’s home. Upon my 8/8/09 visit, I had the pleasure of savoring the sweatbread as well as their donuts and orange slushie. Yum! Rating: 4 stars out of 5.






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Punalu’u Black Sand Beach


Punalu’u Beach

Punalu’u Black Sand Beach
Punalu’u, Big Island, Hawaii
One of the most famous beaches on Big Island is the Punalu’u Black Sand Beach. It is the most expansive and accessible stretch of black sand beach on the island. Tourists from all over come here to see the sand, the sea turtles, and to snorkel/dive. Located right off Hwy 11, Ninole loop road off the entrance to Sea Mountain Resort, in the Puna district south of Hilo, between Pahala and na’alehu. Most famous for the Hawaiian Green Sea turtles that frequent the beach as much as the tourists. Endangered species – they are protected as much as the sand that is made of basalt and created by lava flowing into the ocean that explodes when it reaches the ocean and cools. Don’t touch or disturb the turtles and take no sand. The waters are protected by the small cove embracing the beach. There is a large paved parking lot with full facilities. Swimming area is very rocky, best to be careful as it is dangerous grounds. Beach has alot of underground fresh water flowing into it which is very cold. Legends have it that the early inhabitants would dive underwater with a jug to get fresh water. Other local legends warn of taking the sand or the rocks from the beach – for if one does, they will be cursed by the Goddess Pele until it is returned. (Myth may have been generated by 30 year Park Service veteran Russ Apple who was restoring Hawaiian cultural resources in the parks) Evidence of shifts of the use of the beach area by indigenous peoples vary through time. Monumental architecture in forms of large heiau complexes (ritual centers) speak to the powers of na ali’i (chiefs) and the social stratification of the ancient Ka’u district. Camping is permitted at the Beach Park.


Punalu’u Beach

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Ka’u Desert


Ka’u Desert


Ka’u Desert

Big Island, Hawaii

The Ka?? Desert is an amazing desert of lava rock and sand in the southwest rift zone of the Kilauea volcano. It is not a true desert because it does get rainfall, albeit it acid rain, and it exceeds 1,000 mm per year. (39 inches) The desert consists primarily of decaying lava remnants, volcanic ash, sand, and gravel. There is little vegetation here due to the acid rainfall that continuously bombards the desert. The acid rain is formed by moisture mixing with the sulphur dioxide released from volcanic vents. Its a popular hiking destination in Hawaii and is accessible via Highway 11 between Kona and Volcano. Some of the desert is located within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. One needs to be wary of gases, toxins, and acid rain while hiking in this desert based on activity at the active volcanoes in the area since the tradewinds blow right over this area from the geothermal areas. The 1790 Eruption was the most historically devastating in this area. Ash was spread over the desert from this eruption while Chief Keoua Kuahu’ula was travelling around Kilauea to Ka’u after battling with Kamehameha I. 70-80 warriors, with their families, suffocated when the ash entered their lungs. Their footprints were preserved of their hike.

    The Ka’u Desert Trail traverses a starkly beautiful landscape. In this harsh environment of heat, wind, and sulphuric acid rain only the hardiest plants and animals survive. The trail starts out through a 400 year old ‘a’a lava flow, crossing over intricate lava formations and wind-blown ash enroute to Mauna Iki. At Mauna Iki the trail splits. Heading south to Pepeiao, hikers pass wind-sculpted dunes and striking, bare cinder cones. Heading east the Mauna Iki Trail to Hilina Pali road passes over the drifts of Pele’s golden hair entrapped within folds of pahoehoe lava. Overhead, koa’e kea (white-tailed tropicbirds) spiral skyward from their nesting sites in steep-walled pit craters. ~ marker at Ka’u Desert.


Ka’u Desert




Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert



Ka’u Desert


Foot prints

    Footprints of the PastSmall clay balls formed in the air where the volcanic ash mixed with moisture, then fell to create a layer of ‘mud’. The victims, their discoverers, and later travellers, likely left their footprints here until the mud eventually hardened. Now that the soft rock is gradually eroded away, or buried by lava and shifting sand. One warrior party of the ali’i (chief) Keoua attempted to pass Kilauea during these violent events, but the toxic gases enveloped the soldiers and their families. 80 men, women, and children were reportedly killed. Ash covered the land – in 1790 A.D. Kilauea’s summit produced a major explosion which filled the sky with ash and debris. Trade winds carried the fine particles across the Ka’u Desert and they coated the land. ~ marker at Ka’u Desert.


Ka’u Desert Footprints



Ka’u Desert Footprints



Ka’u Desert Footprints



Ka’u Desert Footprints



Ka’u Desert Footprints



Ka’u Desert Footprints

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Mauna Loa


Big Island


Mauna Loa

Big Island, Hawaii
Mauna Loa is one of Hawaii’s most active Shield Volcanoes. She is shaped like a shield because it produces lava that is extremely fluid with low viscosity and possesses very low slopes. It is one of 5 that make up the Hawaiian Islands. The others are Kohala (dormant), Mauna Kea (dormant), Hualalai (dormant), and Kilauea (active). This mountain’s massive size and elevation, causing it to loom over 13,677 feet above sea level makes it the world’s largest volcano on Earth by means of volume and area. As a very active shield volcano, it has produced a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles. In Hawaiian “Mauna Loa” means “Long Mountain”. Most of its eruptions are non-explosive, silica-poor and very fluid, causing more lava flows and fountains since it has very shallow slopes. Because of how the trade winds blow from east to west, Mauna Loa strongly affects the local climate. At low elevations on the eastern windward side of the volcano is a high presence of rain causing much of the foot of the volcano region to be rainforest. The western (leeward) side causes a drier climate giving birth to deserts. Its summit crater/caldera is called Moku’aweoweo. The summit is also often covered with snow due to its elevation. The main oval depression is about 3 miles long and 1.5 miles wide. Two side craters partially fused with the main one are know as North Pit and South Pit; southwest of the summit caldera are two smaller pit craters called Lua Hou (New Pit) and Lua Hohonu (Deep Pit). Mauna Loa has been erupting for at least 700,000 years, emerging from the sea floor above surface around 400,000 years ago, coming from the Hawaii hotspot that is responsible for creating the Hawaiian Islands for tens of millions of years. The gradual drift of the Pacific Plate will eventually carry this volcano away from the hotspot causing it to become extinct within 500,000 to 1,000,000 years from now. From prehistoric times offerings and prayers were made here off the ‘Ainapo Trail that rose from the village of Kapapala over 11,200 feet in about 35 miles to the Moku’aweoweo caldera during its eruptions. These trips took many days and individuals, so camps were established along the way for food and water supplies. By 1916 Moku’aweoweo was included in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park with a trail connecting it with the park headquarters at Kilauea. The most prominant eruptions here with extensive lava flows were in 1855, 1859, 1881, 1887, 1907, 1916, 1919, 1926, 1935, 1942, 1950, The 1926 and 1950 eruptions destroyed villages, and some of Hilo is built on its lava flows from the late 19th century. In 1934 A shelter was build with some of the stones from the historic Wilkes’ camp site and mortar at the summit. During the 1935 eruption, the U.S. Air Force dropped bombs in the path of the lava to divert it from hitting Hilo. The most recent of eruptions occured from March 24-April 15, 1984. In the 1990’s the Ainapo Trail was reopened. As of 2009, the volcano has been inactive for over 25 years.

    The Summit of Mauna Loa stands 20 miles before you, reaching an elevation of 13,677 feet above sea level, and more than 31,000 feet above the ocean floor, with a volume of 10,000 cubic miles, Mauna Loa is the largest mountain on Earth. The volcanoes great mass is being built by successive flows of hot molten rock, or lava. The thickness of an individual lava flow averages 12 feet. Mauna Loa is classified as a shield volcano, a volcano with gently sloping sides resembling a warrior’s shield overturned. Kilauea, the volcano you are now standing on, is also a shield volcano. It has taken hundreds of centuries and countless eruptions for Mauna Loa to reach its present size. During the last 100 years the volcano has erupted more than 18 times. The next eruption could begin at any time. ~ marker at Volcano National Park


Big Island



Mauna Loa

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Volcano’s Eisenhower House

Eisenhower House

Kilauea Military Camp, Volcano National Park, Volcano, Big Island, Hawaii

A resort cabin in the Kilauea Military Camp on the Big Island of Hawaii, in the heart of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, just below the rim of the Kilauea Caldera. The Camp is a famous mountainside resort established primarily for military visitors, staff, and family. It was this cabin, where Dwight Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States, visited and stayed before he became president. The cabin was then named after him. It is a two-bedroom cabin, fully restored, and equipt with modern amenities.


Eisenhower House

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Volcano National Park


Big Island

Volcano National Park
Volcano, Big Island, Hawaii
One of Hawaii’s most notorious and famous National Parks, “Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park” was established in 1916 as a National Park, a International Biosphere Reserve in 1980, and a World Heritage Site in 1987 to demonstrate the history and living geological experiene of volcanism, geology, and techtonics. It covers the creative process of land masses, the science of volcanoes, migration, and evolution of land from the sea. It also covers the complex history of Polynesian travellers and their inhabitation of the Hawaiian Islands. The protective boundaries of the world’s most active volcanoes – Kilauea and Mauna Loa provides dramatic and creative volcanic landscapes in action. The National Park encompasses over 520 square miles of land for science, outdoor recreation, and preservation of nature and geology. It is a thriving mecca for observation, tourism, scientific study, hiking, and camping opportunities covering diverse environments ranging from the ocean/beach landscapes, lush tropical rainforests, arrid/barren deserts, and icy mountainous peaks. It hosts active volcanic eruption sites such as the Kilauea Caldera, Pu’u ‘O’o vent, and the Eastern Rift Zone. Historically, Kilauea and the Halema’uma’u caldera were considered the sacred home of Pele and traditionally were the location of offerings/sacrifices of gifts to the Goddess. A 1970 explosive eruption demolished a war party in the area killing men, women, and children leaving imprints of footprints in the lava that can be found in the desert. The first European visitors to the volcano were English missionaries William Ellis and American Asa Thurston in 1823 contributing greatly to the written word, publications, poems, literature and art that focused on the area that is now a National Park. More tourists were attracted to the area in the 1840’s settling entrepreneurs building hotels in the area from 1891 to 1904. In 1903, William R. Castle proposed the idea of making a park out of the area. In 1908 Thurston entertained James Rudolph Garfield, the U.S. Secretary of the Interior at the time, as well as a congressional delegation in 1909. By 1911, Governor Walter F. Frear drafted a bill to create “Kilauea National Park”. Boundary disputes stalled the idea, but by 1916 House Resolution 9525 signed by Woodrow Wilson made “Hawaii National Park” the 11th National Park in the United States. In 1960 it was split from the Haleakala National Park that it was a percentage part of. By 2004, an additional 115,788 acres were added to the Park (formerly of Kahuku Ranch) creating the largest land acquisition in Hawaiian history for 21.9 million dollars. A major explosion on March 19, 2008 sent debris over 74 acres damaging the Halema’uma’u overlook. A 1,100 ft lava tube on the park grounds was named after the Thurston family as “Thurston Lava Tube”. Several other hotspots of interest were developed in the Park such as the 1790 Footprints, the Ainapo Trail, Kilauea Caldera Crater, Puna-Ka’u Historic District, Ainahou Ranch, Volcano House, Whitney Seismograph Vault No. 29, Wilkes Campsite, art galleries, Thomas Jaggar Museum, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Bookstore, Gift Shop, Kilauea Military Camp, and the Visitor Center. Directions: The main entrance is located off the Hawaii Belt Road in Volcano, Big Island. From the Hawaii Belt Road, one used to be able to take the Chain of Craters Road past several craters to the coast near the town of Kalapana, but recent lava flows and eruptions have demolished the roads near the coastal zone. The park is one of America’s best National Parks. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.


Halema’uma’u Crater / Kilauea Caldera

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Pu’u o’o’


Big Island


Pu’u o’o

is a cindercone / spatter cone on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea in the Hawaiian Island of Big Island. It has been erupting continuously since January 3, 1983 making it the longest living rift zone eruption for the last two centuries. It has expanded over 37 square miles from 1983-1998 eruptions. Its name of “Hill of the ‘O’o Bird” or “digging stick” is Pu’u o’o’ in Hawaiian. It omes from the Hawaiian legend that Pele used her magic rod paoa to create volcanic pits and was named as such by volcanologists assigning letters to vents in the area. The 1998 eruption claimed over 180 houses including a church, a store, the Waha’ula Visitor Center, and many ancient Hawaiian sites including Waha’ula heiau. Its coastal highway closed since 1987 as lava flows covered 8 miles to a depth of 80 ft adding over 544 acres to Hawaii. 1990 flow destroyed the villages of Kalapana and Kaimu including Kaimu Bay and Kalapana Black Sand Beach. This one destroyed over 100 homes. As of this writing this one is now in its 25th year and the 57th eruptive episode.


Big Island

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Pahoa, Big Island, Hawaii

Pahoa
A little town in Hawaii that as the locals describe it “hasn’t stepped out of the 60’s”. The town is named after the Hawaiian word meaning “dagger” or “knife”. It is the resting ground of the Pele and Hi’iaka myths. In a way, it’s Hawaii’s Big Island’s Woodstock. Most of the population walk or bike to work. Relaxing little town at the southern most plae of Puna. Its a stopping area enroute to Lava Trees State Monument, Kapoho, MacKenzie State Park, Pohoiki, Kehena nude beach, and Kalapana. Its located at 1930?4?N 15457?11?W? / ?19.50111N 154.95306W? and is home to approximately 962 people (2000 census). The soil in the area is highly volcanic, and rather new having generated by lava flows within the last 125-500 years. It has a secondary school, a high school, and an intermediate school, all located on Puna road.


Pahoa, Big Island

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Kea’au, Big Island, Hawaii

Kea’au, Big Island, Hawaii
http://www.city-data.com/city/Keaau-Hawaii.html

Is a small residential village on the Big Island of Hawaii. It is located at 1937?16?N 1552?30?W? / ?19.62111N 155.04167W?. It has a population of about 2,010 people (census 2000) with roughly 608 households. It is home to Hi’iaka’s Healing Herb Gardens, the Hilo Art Museum Collection in its Fine Arts Center, and is host location to the Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation.


Kea’au, Big Island

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Pele


Pele

Pele

Is the Hawaiian Goddess of Volcanoes, Fire, Lightning, Dance, and Violence. Local legend places that Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii, is the specific home of the Hawaiian Goddess Pele, in the Halema’uma’u crater at the summit caldera of Kilauea. She only erupts when she is angry. Several specific lava formations are named after her including “Pele’s Tears” (small droplets of lava that cool in the air and retain their teardrop shapes) and Pele’s Hair (thin, brittle strands of volcanic glass that often form during the explosions that accompany a lava flow as it enters the ocean). It was at the location of Kilauea where it is believed that Pele and the rain God Kamapua’a fought. Halema?uma?u, “House of the ?ama?uma?u fern”, derives its name from the final struggle between the two gods: since it was the favorite residence of Pele, Kamapua?a, hard-pressed by Pele’s ability to make lava spout from the ground at will, covered it with the fronds of the fern. Choking from the smoke which could not escape anymore, Pele emerged. Realizing that each could threaten the other with destruction, the gods had to call their fight a draw and divided the island between them: Kamapua?a got the windward northeastern side, and Pele got the drier Kona (“leeward”) side. The rusty singed appearance of the young fronds of the ?ama?uma?u was said to be a product of the legendary struggle. Pele has numerous siblings including K?ne Milohai, Kamohoali?i, N?maka and 13 sisters named Hi?iaka, the most famous being Hi?iakaikapoliopele (Hi?iaka in the bosom of Pele who are all considered to be the offspring of Haumea. Another mythos is that Pele came from a land said to be close to the clouds, with her parents Kane-hoa-lani and Ka-hina-li?i, and brothers Ka-moho-ali?i and Kahuila-o-ka-lani. She had a daughter with her husband Wahieloa (also called Wahialoa) that she named Laka and a son named Menehune. Pele-kumu-honua entices her husband and Pele travels in search of him. The sea pours from her head over the land of Kanaloa (perhaps the island now known asKaho?olawe) and her brothers say: “A sea! a sea! Forth bursts the sea, Bursts forth over Kanaloa (Kahoolawe),
The sea rises to the hills. . . .” “Thrice” (according to the chant) the sea floods the land, then recedes. These floodings are called The-sea-of-Ka-hina-li?i.

Living Stone:Hawai’ian tradition says that the volcano Goddess Pele, resides in the Halema’uma’u, the summit cratere of Kilauea. As a powerful creative force in nature, with a presence that is both physical and spiritual, she is clearly an inspiration to many. The elemental sculpture, Ulumau Pohaku Pele (ever growing rock of Pele), honors Pele, and the wahi kapu (sacred places) of Kilauea and Mauna Loa.
~ historical marker at Volcano National Park

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Kilauea


Kilauea Caldera

Kilauea
Volcano, Big Island, Hawaii
K?lauea is one of the most spectacular volcanoes existing on Big Island in Hawaii. Rising 4,091 feet above sea level, the summit caldera is a broad shelf of uplands well beneath the long profile of Mauna Loa. It is a very low flat shield volcano lying against the southeast flank of the larger volcano known as Mauna Loa. It is one of 5 shield volcanoes that create the Hawaiian islands. The others are Kohala (extinct), Mauna Kea (dormant), Hualalai (dormant), Mauna Loa (active), and Kilauea (most active). The term “Kilauea” in Hawaiian means “spewing” or “much spreading” which refers to its frequent lava flows which has been flowing forth from from the Kilauea caldera/Pu’u ‘O’O crater since January 1983. Kilauea is the most active volcano on Earth and is also the most visited by tourists. It is because of this, volcanologists gather here and have a lab/station located on the rim of the caldera. One of the most recent volcanoes that join in effort to create the Hawaiian Archipelago islands as the Pacific Plate moves over the Hawaiian hotspot undersea. The 1983 eruption has been continuous to the date of this writing and onwards. 33 Eruptions have taken place since 1952 not including this 1983 occurence. She has been recorded to erupt in written history from as early as the 1820’s. Local history tells of the 1790 eruption that killed a party of warriors and their families traversing the area who were sent by the last chief of the island Keoua Kuahu/ula to resist Kamehameha I. In 1959 one of the most spectacular eruptions took place with lava fountaining nearly 580 meters into the sky. From 1969-1974 an eruption labelled “Mauna Ulu” began on May 24, 1969 and continued to July 22, 1974 being the longest flank eruption of any Hawaiian volcano in recorded history – creating a new vent spewing forth lava and adding significant land mass to the island. The 1983 eruption took place on January 3rd along the East Rift Zone from Pu’u ‘O’o and Kupa’ianaha vents, continously to this day, pushing lava flows travelling 11-12 km from the vents into the sea and to this date building over 2 km of new land. Additional lava flows in 1990 destroyed the towns of Kalapana and Kaimu, Kaimu Bay, Kalapana Black Sand Beach, and a large section of Rte 130. Most of her eruptions are non-explosive in the recent history but has had devestating large explosions in the past. Local legend places that this volcanoe is the specific home of the Hawaiian Goddess Pele. She only erupts when she is angry. Lava flows destroyed more homes in a 2008 eruption. Continuously erupting and flowing lava, one can view the flows at a place the government has set up an observation location. You an reach the caldera from Hilo via the Hawaii Belt Road which is State Route 11. The Caldera rests within Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park which encompasses a portion of the volcano with its visitor center located near the margin of the summit caldera to overlook the large pit crater called Halema’uma’u which measures 3 x 5 km. Plumes fissure and erupt from three locations – the Halema’uma’u Crater, the Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, and along the coast where the East Rift zone enters the ocean. The plumes create large blankets of vog (volcanic fog) that envelopes the island. 90% of the surface of this volcano is less than 1,100 years old, and 70% of the surface is less than 600 years old. Located in Volcano National Park, there is a visitor center with lots of information about Kilauea, the region, the ecology, the geology, with exhibits about the volcano, plants, animals, and cultural history. A 20 minute movie is available as well as ranger-led activities. A gift shop is also available.

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Kilauea Lava Flow


Kilauea Lava Flow

Kilauea Lava Flow
* End of Highway 130 on the east side not far from Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii *
Flowing out of the active volcano K?lauea on the Big Island, comes one of the world’s most frequent outpouring of lava. Lava has been issuing continuously at Pu?u ???? since January 1983. In 1998 K?lauea was said to be the most active volcano on the Earth, whose volume of erupted material could pave a road across the world 3 times (according to wikipedia). This is one of the most recent volcanoes in the world. This is also the legendary home of Pele, the Hawaiian volcano Goddess, whom when angry, erupts. Since the 1983 eruiption along the East rift zone from the Pu?u ???? vent and also the K?pa?ianah? vent, Kilauea continues to produce lava flows that travel 11 to 12 km from these vents through tube networks that discharge into the sea to two sites, Wahaula and Kamokuna. In the early to middle 1980s K?lauea was known as “The Drive-By Volcano” because anyone could ride by and see the lava fountains some as much as 1,000 feet in the air from their car. In 1987, the flows destroyed the Royal Gardens Subdivision and now is one of the cheapest subdivision of lots – some of which sell for approximately $500, and is the newest real estate in the world, but there is little chance of ever rebuilding on them. More destructive flows hit in 1990, destroying the towns of Kalapana, Kaim?, Kaim? Bay, Kalapana Black Sand Beach, and a large section of State Rte. 130, which now abruptly dead-ends at the lava flow. More flows in 2008 destroyed an abandoned neighbourhood. At the end of Highway 130, Hawaii County Civil Defense officials setup a viewing center where people can come view the active flows daily. As of my visit on August 7, 2009 – these viewings are still active. When we went, we were very under-equipt, as it is very important to listen to their advice of good shoes/boots, flashlights, and clothing. We had one flashlight amongst three of us running at different paces, and had poor shoes, so it was quite a treacherous 1/2 mile hike into the the viewing area on sharp brutal lava rock fields with holes, pits, crevaches, and stumbling zones. Highly recommended to wear comfortable socks, walking shoes, hiking boots, and clothing prepared for the various climates of hot, damp, or cold. Daytime bring sunscreen, shades, and a hat. Night-time were jackets and/or sweatshirts, windbreakers, raincoats, or hoodies. (watch the weather and prepare) Bring water! Its still quite a distance from the active area where it flows into the ocean, so sometimes is hard to see, though best seen at night. This is for safety. As you can tell from the night photos, its hard to see more than a leaping glowing haze, other than the daytime pics shown here that where purchased from one of the many vendors in the parking lot. Thousands of visitors come here daily. It can get quite crowded. Try to get to the area by sunset and stick around for dark viewing. Viewing point doesn’t open until 2 pm and closes at 10 pm. Cars are not allowed to enter past 8 pm. Gloves are recommended in case you fall so you don’t tear up your hands. Binoculars are a bonus. Follow the rules at the Park, listen to the Rangers, keep your car locked and valuables out of sight. It was a fun experience. Rating: 3.5 stars out of 5.

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Wai’opae (Kapaho) Tidepools


Waiopae Tidepools

Wai’opae (Kapaho) Tidepools
near Hilo, Big Island, Hawaii * http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/coral/mlcd_waiopae.html *
The Wai ‘Opae Tidepools is one of the hottest snorkeling areas near Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii. It resembles a barrier reef. Its a protected Marine Life conservation district. The southern half of the tide pools were placed into this district by a community initiative to protect this fragile ecosystem. Apparently the area was previously pillaged of its marine life until it became protect. It is still open to the public to snorkel in and appreciate. No commercial activities can be done in the area without a permit and nothing that can compromise the ecology. The area is a fish nursery so is also abundant with young fish. A shallow basalt ridge on the seaward side of the pools causes waves to break but also allowing excellent water circulation by northeast trade-wind generated swells that support the life in the reef. Inside the tidepools is a maze of pools that weave around for the snorkelers to swim through. Lots of fish and coral. There are also closer to shore on the right hand side, cold water springs that flow into the area. Directions: Drive south from Hilo on Hwy 11 (Hawaii Belt road) to the intersection of Hwy 130 (Keaau-Pahoa Road) and veer left. Follow until intersects with Hwy 132 (Kapoho Road) and turn left, follow 132 til it ends, with a hard right onto Hwy 137 (Kapoho Kalapana Rd). The last road is Kapoho Kai drive – turn left here and follow road to its end, turn left, and around the bend, nestled to a small housing community called “Vacationland”, you’ll see a small parking area on the righ side of the road. There are no facilities. Rating: 4 stars out of 5.


Waiopae Tidepools

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‘Ahanalui Hot Pond (Big Island, Hawaii)

‘Ahanalui Hot Pond
a.k.a. Pu’ala’a County Park * Highway 137 * Puna district * Hawaii, Big Island, Hawaii *
Located off of Highway 137 is Pu’ala’a County Park – a free park with pavillions, picnic tables, and a warm pool where the cool ocean meets the warm water from a natural hot spring. It is on average a perfect 90 degrees Fahrenheit with a balanced combination of fresh and salt water. Believed to be Pele’s special pools, this one is part natural and part man-made, heated to 90 degrees. The bottom of the pool is sand and mud with a slight sulphur smell, water is brackish but very clear and fish can often be seen within the pool. A small inlet separates the pool from the ocean and allows fish access to the pool. The pool is surrounded by palm trees, green grass, and is manned by a lifeguard. There are restrooms, showers, and a picnic area. Rated: 3.75 stars out of 5.

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Kalapana Village Cafe (Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii)


Kalapana Village Cafe, Big Island, Hawaii

Kalapana Village Cafe
12-5037 Pahoa Kalapana Rd * Pahoa/Kalapana, HI 96778 * (808) 965-0121 *
An interesting little cafe near the entrance to walk out to Kalapana beach. Me and my friend Kawika dropped in for lunch and a drink. I tried the combination platter which had beef terriyaki, fish n’ chips, crab cakes, rice, and potato salad. Not bad for the price, but I’ve had better. Service was a bit slow, but decent. Staff seemed pre-occupied but were friendly. It hit the spot so no complaints and it’s not like you have any other options in this town that barely still exists no more than a tourist stop since Kalapana was destroyed by the lava flows in 1990. Rating: 2 stars out of 5.


Combination Platter

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Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii


Kalapana Village, Big Island, Hawaii

Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii
Now just a little tourist stop-off and memorial, Kalapana was once a town in the region of the Puna District. It was demolished in the 1990 K?lauea lava flow from the Pu?u ???? vent which destroyed and partly buried much of the Kalapana Gardens and nearby Royal Gardens subdivision that Kalepana consisted of. In addition, the nearby towns of Kaim? and Kaim? Bay were also destroyed by this lava flow and now lie buried beneath more than 50 feet of lava which makes up Hawaii’s newest coastline and is the area of Hawaii that is growing daily. Most of the actual town has been cut off as it lies buried under the lava and is mainly accessed by very few locals who live there utilizing 4-wheel drive vehicles to get in and out. There is a bed and breakfast running in the town, a cafe, and a memorial garden.


Kalapana Village, Big Island, Hawaii

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Kalapana Lava Beds


Kalapana Lava Flows, Big Island, Hawaii

Kalapana Lava Beds
Off Highway 137, Near Hilo, Big Island, Hawaii
The Kalapana Lava Beds are part of the ever-growing newly settled part of the Big Island of Hawaii. These fields are the remains of lava flows that devestated the Puna district area in 1990. Lava is a molten rock that is expelled from a volcano during an eruption. In this case, when in 1990 Kilauea exploded from the Pu’u ‘O’o vent, it destroyed most of the Kalapana Gardens and the nearby Royal Gardens subdivision which you would see today in these pictures had the lava not flowed over them nearly destroying all habitation in the area. When lava is formed in the interior of the Earth, it erupts from a volcanic vent, and is a flowing, growing, expanding molten liquid at temperatures from 700 C to 1,200 C (1,300 F to 2,200 F). Lava is viscous and 100,000 times the viscosity of water making it able to flow great distances before cooling and solidifying, because of both its thixotropic and shear thinning properties. This outpouring of lava, once it begins to solidify, such as when it hits the ocean such as in this instance, solidifies to form igneous rock. Not only was Kalapana destroyed, but also the nearly towns of Kaimu and Kaimu Bay which are currently buried beneath more than 50 feet of lava and is one of Hawaii’s youngest newest coastlines. The place is amazing and definitely not to missed on your trip to the Big Island. Such a strange and overwhelming experience to be standing on a beach and coastline that you may very well be older than. 5 stars out of 5.


Kalapana Beach, Big Island, Hawaii

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Kehena Beach (Big Island, Hawaii)


Kehena Beach, Big Island, Hawaii

Kehena Beach (Dolphin Beach)
Near Mile Marker 19, Off Highway 137, Near Hilo, Big Island, Hawaii

One of Big Island’s unofficial yet very private nude beaches – not well known to tourists but very popular with the locals, especially of the ‘counter-culture’ variety. Located just off Highway 137 in a residential district, a climb down the cliffs, to a beautiful hidden black sand beach with places to sun as well as to hang out in the shade. Nude beaches are technically not legal or official, but this is one of the many places it is tolerated and overlooked. Its protected by shade trees and steep cliffs. The turf is a bit rough for swimming, even though people do. Be careful though, I was unaware, and my first dip in the buff into the waters met to some thrashing around on sharp lava rocks in the crashing waves. Its a beautiful beach and people appear to be friendly. Drumming and music in the background hints that there are some festive activities by locals. Reminded me of a miniature version of Wreck Beach (Vancouver, B.C.). Definitely my most favorite beach on the Big Island for sunning and just relaxing. While we didn’t view any dolphins on our visit on 8/7/09; Kehena Beach is also known as “Dolphin Beach” because it is a great place to view dolphins (and for the risky swimmers – to actually swim with them). Rating: 4.75 stars out of 5. [ Here’s an interesting tale of swimming with dolphins at Kehena by a new resident ]


Kehena Beach, Big Island, Hawaii

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Hawaii Go! Airlines


Boarding the plane for Big Island


Hawaii Go! Airlines
Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii to Hilo, Big Island, Hawaii * http://www.mesa-air.com/ * http://www.iflygo.com/

Wednesday, August 6th, 2009 I travelled from Honolulu to Hilo with this company I’ve never heard of. A friend hooked me up with a buddy pass to try this airline out and to go see an old high school friend of mine. (Thank you Kit!) It was a small airline departing from a different section of the Honolulu main airport. Extremely friendly service and a very comfortable (and short) flight between the islands. We walked out the gate and boarded up the stairs, seated nicely, and treated well. I’ll definitely be flying Hawaii Go! again! It has become one of my favorite smaller airlines. Go! is based in Honolulu as a regional brand of the Phoenix, Arizona based ‘Mesa Airlines’. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.


Boarding the plane for Big Island


Boarding the plane for Big Island

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Honolulu


Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii

Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii
Honolulu means “Sheltered Bay” or “Place of Shelter” in Hawaiian. Hawaii’s capital and most populated center, Honolulu is a concrete jungle in the middle of a multi-environment paradise on the volcanic islands of Hawaii. Honolulu encompasses both the city and the county of Honolulu which are designated as the entire island. It is Hawaii’s only incorporated city. By 2000, the city and County combined population was 909,863 and the actual city was approximately 371,657. Honolulu was first settled by Polynesian migrants. Mythology place early origins in the location, but evidence points to as early as the 12th century. 1795 Captain William Brown of England was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor and from his exploits, began a series of European visits and eventually established this area as a major port between North America and Asia. King Kamehameha I conquered the Island onf Oahu in the Battle of Nu’uanu and moved his royal court here in 1804, later relocated to where downtown sits in 1809. 1845 Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu, transforming it into a modern capital, erecting the current Iolani Palace and other great monuments around the city. Late 19th/early 20th century saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, annexation by the U.S. expanded more of Hawaii’s population and economy. With the inhabitation by the U.S. military, Honolulu became a major military center. It became the capital and largest city of Hawaii. Incorporation of a major airport and seaport, it became the hub of activity between the East and the West. Damaged greatly during the WWII Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, much of Honolulu was rebuilt and found an economic and tourism boom, especially after statehood. 7.6 million visitors come to the Islands annually, most of whom touch down in Honolulu. Sky-rise skyscrapers, high-rise buildings, hotels, and commercial centers were established. Honolulu became ranked in 2009 as rating 29th worldwide in quality of living based on political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, transportation, and other public services. Its main economy is tourism, military, business, and education.


Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii

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State of Hawaii, USA

Hawaii, United States of America
Is one of the newest of the 50 United States of America being admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. Once independent, existing from 1810-1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American businessmen when it was annexed in 1959. It’s capital is Honolulu on the Island of O’ahu. It has an estimated population of 1,283,388 inhabitants. The state consists of a series of volcanic islands known as the Hawaiian Island chain and is still actively growing, moving in a northwesterly direction across the Pacific Ocean via plate tectonics. It spreads over 1,500 miles. It is located over 2,000 miles southwest of the North American mainland and is the southernmost state of the United States. It is not geographically located in the United States. The Eight main islands are Ni?ihau, Kaua?i, O?ahu, Moloka?i, L?na?i, Kaho?olawe, Maui, and Hawai?i. Big Island or Hawai’i is the largest of the islands. The Hawaiian Islands are physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian region of Oceania and are considered an archipelago. It hosts the tallest mountain in the world at 13,796 ft if followed from the base of the mountain from the floor of the Pacific Ocean to its height (33,500 ft). These islands were created by sea floor volcanoes erupting magma via plate tectonics upon a stationary hot spot that slowly creates new volcanoes and islands as the islands move in a northwesterly direction. Lo’ihi is the newest volcano to form. Kilauea exploded in 1790 creating the most deadliest of eruptions in U.S. history killing over 5,405 warriors and their families who were marching on Kilauea at the time. Hawaii has more endangered species and having lost a higher percentage of them than anywhere else in the United States. Hawaii is the setting for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Hawaii was populated as early as 300 BCE by Polynesian settlers potentially from the Marquesas, with later waves of migration from Raietea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first European contat was by British Explorer Captain James Cook who visited the islands in 1778. He named the islands the “Sandwich Islands” in honor of his sponsor, John Montagu, the 4th earl of Sandwich. He visited twice, and during his second visit in 1779, while attempting to abduct a Hawaiian chief, he was killed on Big Island. After his visit and the publication of books relating to his voyages, the islands gradually were bombarded by European explorers and visitors exporting trade goods and importing in diseases such as influenza, smallpox, and measles that killed 1/5th of Hawaii’s native people in the 1850’s. Many battles took place on the islands fighting for power. Christian missionaries arrived in the early 1800’s converting much of the population to Christianity. In 1887, Walter M. gibson and a group of kingdom subjects representing Hawaii’s government forced a signing of a constitution known as the “Bayonet Constitution” (signed under force) that stripped the king of administrative authority, eliminating voting rights for Asians, and set minimum income and property requirements for American, European, and native Hawaiian voters, limiting the vote to elite Americans, Europeans, and sever native Hawaiians who amassed wealth and property. In 1893 the Queen announced plans to establish a new constitution that was later overthrown by a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders seeking annexation by the United States. U.S. Government Minister John L. Stevens sent U.S. Marines to make this happen. This caused the Revolution of 1893. (In 1993 President Clinton and Congress signed a joint Apology Resolution formally apologizing for overthrowing the Hawaiian Kingdom which was the first time in American History where the U.S. apologized for overthrowing a legitimate government of a sovereign nation). From 1894-1898 Hawaii was run as a republic until the provisional Government was annexed by the Newlands Resolution in Congress. Hawaii became a territory on July 7, 1898. With the Revolution of 1954 by the original immigrant laborers who were now legal U.S. citizens, Hawaii campaigned for statehood and received it during March of 1959 with the passing of the Hawaii Admission Act. It quickly became a commercial center with a growing economy. The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated as state constitutional law specific programs to promote indigenous Hawaiian language and culture. The Iolani Palace in Honolulu is the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii and was once the residence of the Hawaiian Monarch. Some archaeologists debate that Hawaii was first inhabited in 1,000 BCE who had a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiaus. Others debate this as a myth. Oahu is the most populated island. Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to tourism and military presence. Average lifespan of Hawaiians is 79.8 years, longer than the residents of any other state. Ethnicity varies more than many other states, with 27.1% being White, (24.8% non-Hispanic whites), 2.4% Black or African American, .2% American Indians, 38.5% Asian Americans, 9% Pacific Islander Americans, 8.7% Latinos/Hispanics, and 1.4% Other. Asian culture is abundant in the Islands. Hawaii also has the highest percentage of multi-racial individuals making up 21% of its population. European ancestries in Hawaii are also diverse with 7.4% German, 5.2% Irish, 4.6% English, 4.3% Portugese, and 2.7% Italian. Hawaii is a majority-minority state in which non-Hispanic whites don’t form a majority. There are two official languages in Hawaii since the 1978 convention: English and Hawaiian. Hawaii is religiously diverse with over 28.9% Christian, 9% Buddhist, .8 % Jewish, and the remaining Other or Unaffiliated including Bah’ Faith, Confucianism, Daoism, the Hawaiian religion, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Shintoism, Scientology, Wicca, Zoroastrianism, as well as those of other religions. Its main economy is tourism,sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane, pineapple, military, education, and coffee, etc. Its largest exports are food (coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, and sugarcane) and clothing. Hawaii has a high state tax burden primarily because education, health care, and social services are all rendered at the state level vs. municipal levels as it does in the rest of the United States. Hawaii’s health care system insures over 95% of its residents. President Barack Obama is from Hawaii.

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This page is in progress and updates will be frequent in the near future, please come back soon for more content and photos If you are a business or attraction that has been reviewed here and would like to add details, a re-review, or to request an update please email Technogypsie @ gmail . com (remove spaces)
This page was last updated on 8/16/2015

    References:

  • Baurley, Thomas 2015 Alternative America: Travel Guide to the U.S.A. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • McGowan, Leaf 2015 Magical America. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • Wikipedia 2015 “United States of America” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States referenced 8/16/15.

Following area aerial photos taken from the plane going over each of the islands. My best guesses as to which Islands are which (please comment and correct if wrong):

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