Category Archives: ships

Yaquina Bay Lighthouse (Newport, Oregon)

"Yaquina Head's light is 81'2" (25 m) above the ground and 162' (49 m) above mean sea level;
“Yaquina Head’s light is 81’2” (25 m) above the ground and 162′ (49 m) above mean sea level; the top of the tower is 10′ (3 m) higher still.

Yaquina Bay Lighthouse:

    “The Yaquina Bay Lighthouse was built in 1871, this lighthouse is the oldest building in Newport. It operated for only three years – until the lighthouse here was built. The restored lighthouse is a popular attraction in Yaquina Bay State Park” ~ information sign at Yaquina Head National Park, Newport, Oregon.

“Yaquina Head’s light is 81’2” (25 m) above the ground and 162′ (49 m) above mean sea level; the top of the tower is 10′ (3 m) higher still. Higher is better – On America’s rugged west coast, keeping lights low enough to be seen under the fog was often a problem. However if they were placed too low, they couldn’t be seen far enough away to be useful. The higher a light is, the further it can be seen at sea. At 162 feet (49 m) above sea level, Yaquina Head’s light can be seen about 19 miles (32 km) out to sea. Late nights at the office – Imagine spending all of a long winter’s night sitting on a stiff chair 70 feet (21 m) up in the tower watching the light. Now try to imagine doing it in the years before there was radio, tv, or even electricity! The buildings attached to the light tower has two rooms which once served as the ‘oil room and office’ however the keepers stood nightly watch in the tower itself. Still lighting the way: Many ships and boats continue to depend on lighthouses for navigational aid. Equipment in the small building attached to the light tower keeps a light on in case the electricity fails. A small battery-powered back up light is attached to the railing surrounding the lantern deck – you can see it from the observation deck at the base of the tower. By modern standards, the regular routine of a lighthouse keeper was monotonous. It was however sometimes interrupted by unexpected moments of drama. ‘last night lightning struck the office and storeroom building. it tore off the copper, lead, and shingles where the root joins on to the tower …’ keeper’s log, Yaquina head, Oct 18 1920. By 10 am every day the lighthouse lamp was refueled and its five wicks trimmed. Throughout the day, the lens and windows were cleaned and repairs made to keep everything shipshape. At dusk the lamp was lit and then watched from the watch room until sunrise. What else did keepers do? they greeted tourists ‘ … sea quite smooth. keepers painting the watchroom and working the road today, had two visitors today.’ – keeper’s log Yaquina head, april 28, 1877. They submitted to inspections: ‘…they never knew when an inspector was going to come. He came about four times each year. He would just come in the house like he belonged there and he would go through it just to see if the women kept the houses up.’ – Philena Nelson, friend of the keeper’s children 1916-1918. They painted, and painted some more ‘ keeper’s painting the bracketts and getting stage (scaffold) ready and mixing paint to paint towers’ – keeper’s long, yaquina head, may 27, 1891. They aided victims of shipwrecks – ‘keeper send 2nd asst. to Newporte for assistance of a tug. The keepers gave the three men that got ashore necessary assistance done all in there power to make them comfortable’-Keeper’s long, Yaquina Head, March 28, 1889. Even though Newport was only four miles away, bad weather, poor roads, and the demands of their work combined to tie the keepers and their families to the Yaquina Head light station. They caught, shot, and grew their own food. ‘Keepers whitewashing the garden fence and weeding the garden also today.’ June 8 1887. They coped with the weather – when there were big storms and the seas were rough, it would make a roar and shae the lighthouse. the spray from the ocean, when the waves were rough, would spray clear up to the tower.Some of the women became keeps – Mrs M J Plummer went on duty as laborer today until a 2nd Asst. arrives at the station.’ August 17, 1888. In the long history of staffed US lighthouses, a number of women, usually wives or daughters of keepers served as keepers. “~ information sign at Yaquina Head National Park, Newport, Oregon. http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25775

"Yaquina Head's light is 81'2" (25 m) above the ground and 162' (49 m) above mean sea level; the top of the tower is 10' (3 m) higher still. Higher is better - On America's rugged west coast, keeping lights low enough to be seen under the fog was often a problem. However if they were placed too low, they couldn't be seen far enough away to be useful.  The higher a light is, the further it can be seen at sea. At 162 feet (49 m) above sea level, Yaquina Head's light can be seen about 19 miles (32 km) out to sea. Late nights at the office - Imagine spending all of a long winter's night sitting on a stiff chair 70 feet (21 m) up in the tower watching the light. Now try to imagine doing it in the years before there was radio, tv, or even electricity! The buildings attached to the light tower has two rooms which once served as the 'oil room and office' however the keepers stood nightly watch in the tower itself. Still lighting the way: Many ships and boats continue to depend on lighthouses for navigational aid. Equipment in the small building attached to the light tower keeps a light on in case the electricity fails. A small battery-powered back up light is attached to the railing surrounding the lantern deck - you can see it from the observation deck at the base of the tower. By modern standards, the regular routine of a lighthouse keeper was monotonous. It was however sometimes interrupted by unexpected moments of drama. 'last night lightning struck the office and storeroom building. it tore off the copper, lead, and shingles where the root joins on to the tower ...' keeper's log, Yaquina head, Oct 18 1920.  By 10 am every day the lighthouse lamp was refueled and its five wicks trimmed. Throughout the day, the lens and windows were cleaned and repairs made to keep everything shipshape. At dusk the lamp was lit and then watched from the watchroom until sunrise. What else did keepers do? they greeted tourists ' ... sea quite smooth. keepers painting the watchroom and worki
“Yaquina Head’s light is 81’2” (25 m) above the ground and 162′ (49 m) above mean sea level; the top of the tower is 10′ (3 m) higher still. Higher is better – On America’s rugged west coast, keeping lights low enough to be seen under the fog was often a problem. However if they were placed too low, they couldn’t be seen far enough away to be useful. The higher a light is, the further it can be seen at sea. At 162 feet (49 m) above sea level, Yaquina Head’s light can be seen about 19 miles (32 km) out to sea. Late nights at the office – Imagine spending all of a long winter’s night sitting on a stiff chair 70 feet (21 m) up in the tower watching the light. Now try to imagine doing it in the years before there was radio, tv, or even electricity! The buildings attached to the light tower has two rooms which once served as the ‘oil room and office’ however the keepers stood nightly watch in the tower itself. Still lighting the way: Many ships and boats continue to depend on lighthouses for navigational aid. Equipment in the small building attached to the light tower keeps a light on in case the electricity fails. A small battery-powered back up light is attached to the railing surrounding the lantern deck – you can see it from the observation deck at the base of the tower. By modern standards, the regular routine of a lighthouse keeper was monotonous. It was however sometimes interrupted by unexpected moments of drama. ‘last night lightning struck the office and storeroom building. it tore off the copper, lead, and shingles where the root joins on to the tower …’ keeper’s log, Yaquina head, Oct 18 1920. By 10 am every day the lighthouse lamp was refueled and its five wicks trimmed. Throuhout the day, the lens and windows were cleaned and repairs made to keep everything shipshape. At dusk the lamp was lit and then watched from the watchroom until sunrise. What else did keepers do? they greeted tourists ‘ … sea quite smooth.

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The Dunbrody

The Dunbrody
~ Waterford, Ireland ~

This three-masted tall ship in barque style was built in Quebec around 1845 by Thomas Hamilton for the Graves family – merchants from New Ross, Wexford, Ireland. The ship originated as a cargo vessel transporting timber and guano to Ireland. From 1845 to 1851 during the months of April to September, she brought passengers to North America – helping people escape the potato famine. They could fit 4 passengers in an area of 6′ square and their children. The Brody had a very low mortality rate for its passengers and was not classified as a “coffin ship” like many others like her who lost roughly 50% of their passengers during the potato famine exodus. It is believed that was due to the fact that the captains John Baldwin and John W. Williams were praised to their dedication for the safe passage. There was one passage with 313 passengers out of which only 6 died. She was sold by the Graves family in 1869. She was then taken by her new owners in 1874 from Cardiff to Quebec and ran aground in the Saint Lawrence River. She was then salvaged, repaired, and sold – then in 1875 was foundered on the Labrador coast and lost. The ship you see here is a replica.

Rated: 5 of 5 stars. ~ Review by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

If you would like to contact the author about this review, need a re-review, would like to advertise on this page, or have information to add, please contact us at technogypsie@gmail.com.

August 1, 2012: The Dunbrody, Waterford, Ireland. (c) 2012 – photography by Leaf McGowan, technogypsie.com. To purchase this photo, go to http://www.technogypsie.com/photography/?tcp_product_category=photo
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Gig Harbor, Washington

Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Gig Harbor, Washington

Gig Harbor, Washington

A small little port town and fishing village on Puget Sound bay, just south/southwest of Seattle. Located in Pierce County Washington, this small town of just around 7200 residents, is a great stop for tourists headed west. They claim to be the “Gateway to the Olympic Peninsula”. It is located conveniently near various parks, hitoric waterfront, boutiques, and restaurants. It is located alog State Route 6 about six miles from I-5. The town was founded by fisherman Samuel Jerisich in 1867 and was an attracting area for other immigrants from Norway, Sweden, and Croatia. It was officially platted in 1888 by Alred M Burnham. It was incorporated on July 12, 1946. Its known for commercial fishing, logging, boat building, and tourism. By 1950 it became generally a suburb of Tacoma. Today there is very little industry here – and boat building is rarely done anymore here. It is very popular for commercial fishing. It was the first place in the area to build a gas-powered fishing boat, done so in 1905 by the Skansie brothers.

    “Our First Sawmill … Settlers from Albert Lea, Minnesota, established Gig Harbor’s first sawmill, the Gig Harbor Lumber Company, near this spot on the waterfron in 1887. The sawmill cut as much as 100,000 board feet of lumber daily. Its 450 foot wharf could accommodate the boats, sometimes 15 sailing vessels and steamers at a time, that came to the harbor for lumber. Mill workers lived in rows of shanties up what is now Rosedale Street. The mill owners also engaged in boat building in a shipyard they created next to the mill. In 1888 they launched the steamer Albert Lea and in 1890 the schooner Vine. The early 1890s were hard times and the mill struggled. It was sold under foreclosure in 1891. It changed hands several more times before being purchased in 1899 and moved to Clear Lake along the Skagit River. The mill operated there for several years before burning down. This was not the end of the industry in Gig Harbor. Other mills would appear and logging would continue into the 1950s.” ~ information sign at Gig Harbor docks.

Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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The Maid of the Mist Tour (Niagara Falls)

070313-194

Maid of the Mist Tour
* Niagara Falls State Park, Niagara, New York *

If you want to get a good look at the Bridal Veil Falls or the Horseshoe Falls from the American side. It begins as a ferry boat that issues you a rain poncho and takes you out from the calm side of the Niagara River near the Rainbow Bridge. The Tour takes you by the American and Bridal Veil Falls, and then into the spray heavy curve of Horseshoe/Canadian Falls. The tour can be accessed either from the American or the Canadian side. The tour is operated by the Maid of the Mist Steamship Company. The first boat was launched in 1846 to ferry people from Canada to America and vice versa. It lost business when the Suspension Bridge was built and became a tour system. Numerous boats and versions were constructed and used through the years. The very first Maid of the Mist I ran from 1846 until 1854 as a double-stacked steamboat ferry. Business failed in the late 1800’s and was not restored until 1895. The boats have saved a few people who plunged over Horseshoe Falls through the years. The Canadian operations will close in October of 2013. Most likely will be operated by another company on the Canadian side in the near future. Rating: 5 stars out of 5

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The Jeanie Johnson Museum Tour (Dublin, Ireland)

Jeannie Johnson Tall Sailing Ship & Museum

Jeannie Johnson Tall Sailing Ship & Museum
Dublin, Ireland

Sitting in the Harbour of the River Liffey, just outside the CHQ Building is the replica of the infamous “Jeanie Johnston” ~ the three masted barque built in 1847 by John Munn that brought settlers over to the New World during the great Irish Famine. This replica was completed in 2002 and now sits primarily as a onboard history museum with night activities and events. The replica was designed by former Chief Naval Architect Fred Walker with the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich England. She is originally established as a ocean-going sail training vessel at sea and then in port coverts to a living history museum over the 19th century emigration between Ireland and the Americas. For 8 Euro or less, a guided tour takes you to her upper and lower decks giving a full narrated history of her chronology, feats, and sorrows. The main cabin demonstrates a picturesque view of what life was like onboard with numerous wax figures of her historic passengers. Overall the tour was masterfully done and a wonderful piece of Dublin’s maritime history. A must visit to any Irish tourist. Rating: 5 stars out of 5 by Leaf McGowan

Jeannie Johnson Tall Sailing Ship & Museum

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Charleston Municipal Marina

Charleston Municipal Marina

* http://www.charlestoncitymarina.com/ * 17 Lookwood Drive * Charleston, South Carolina *
(843) 577-7702 *

One of several, this beautiful marina is stocked full of boats, visitors, and harbourers. The floating docks look quite popular, even though we didn’t venture out on it, just sat on the bench after a nice seafood dining experience at the marina’s restaurant. At the heart of the network for the three main rivers connecting Charleston to the Atlantic Ocean, it appeared to be quite a hotspot, and walking distance from historic downtown. This beauty is located on the Atlantic Intra-coastal Waterway along mile marker 469.5 featuring over 19,000 feet of linear dock space with over 40 acres of water. State of the art facilities, amenities, and docking support. The Mega-dock extends over 1,500 feet and is the longest free standing floating fuel dock in the Southeastern United States. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.

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Captain Cook Museum (Whitby, UK)

Captain Cook Museum

Captain Cook Memorial Museum
* Grape Lane Whitby North Yorkshire, YO22 4BA, United Kingdom
01947 601900 *

After having followed Captain Cook’s life from his place of death in Hawaii, and embarking on part of the 2012 circumnavigation of Australia this summer aboard the HMB Endeavour, I could think nothing better than to finish my summer journey by going to Cook’s birthplace – Whitby. The Captain Cook Museum was my target. The museum is located in the actual house where Cook began his apprenticeship in the 17th century that began his adventures. Packed within this small building on its many different floors are exhibits about Cook’s life, achievements, maps, models, letters, and historical artifacts. Some of the rooms are furnished as they were in Cook’s time. For any Captain Cook fan or individual interested in his history, this is a not-to-miss place for the knowledge it shares. Those who really lack interest in Cook, it can be skipped. Rating: 4 stars out of 5.

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HMB Endeavour

HMB Endeavour
* 1994 – Present * Australian Maritime Museum, Sydney, Australia * http://www.anmm.gov.au/ *

In honor of one of the world’s greatest explorers, Captain James Cook, and his ship the HMS Endeavor, a replica was started in 1988 to commemorate the Australian Bicentenary of European Settlement in Australia by the Bond Corporation. Constructed in Fremantle, Western Australia, she was completed in 1993 and commissioned in 1994 as one of the world’s most accurate maritime reproductions ever built. She took funding from various organizations, corporations, government, and private sources as well as labor and support from volunteers in the Fremantle community. She was operated by the HM Bark Endeavor Foundation until 2005. She was taken over by the Australian government through the Australian National Maritime Museum (ANMM) in 2005 to the present day. Her maiden voyage took place in October of 1994 sailing to Sydney Harbour and following Cook’s path from Botany Bay to Cooktown. From 1996-2002 she retraced Cook’s ports of call around the world arriving in Whitby in 2002. She has since circum-navigated the world twice with over 170,000 nautical miles on her clock, visiting over 29 countries, most of the Pacific Islands, a ship museum in 116 ports, and this year of 2011, has embarked upon its first ever circumnavigation of Australia replicating Captain Cook’s original circling of Australia that is expected to take 13 months of sailing with a core professional crew and 40 adventurous voyage crew members learning the ropes of sailing a historic ship and what life was like in the 18th century onboard. The HMB will be docking at various ports every 5-12 days as it makes its way around Australia for visitors to embrace her glory and tour her presence in port of these particular cities as a floating museum. She will be docking in Brisbane (28 April 8 May 2011), Gladstone (21 26 May), Townsville (10 14 June), Cairns (24 June 5 July), Darwin (3 14 August), Geraldton (30 September 4 October), Fremantle (14 October 1 November), Bunbury (9 13 November), Fremantle (20 November 30 December), Albany (14 18 January 2012), Port Lincoln (4 8 February), Adelaide (16 23 February), Portland (7 11 March), Hobart (24 March 3 April), Melbourne (18 29 April), Eden (9 13 May) with brief visits to Thursday Island, North Qld (16 19 July 2011), Broome, WA (29 August 1 September 2011) and Exmouth, WA (14 17 September 2011) to take on provisions and exchange voyage crew. Voyage crew members will sleep in hammocks and work hard climbing masts and hoisting sails. Four “supernumeraries” will have their own individual cabins and participate in the less arduous tasks on the ship. She has been completely refit for this 2011 voyage. The ship is beautifully crafted in replica-fashion giving the visitor a glimpse of a sailor’s life during the epic 1768-1771 voyage that brought Captain Cook to the shores of Australia. The replica has over 30 kilometers of rope and over 50 wooden blocks and pulleys, masts and spars holding 28 sails that manifest over 10,000 square feet of canvas. Life will be demonstrated during the tours on deck, in the galley where one can view the great firehearth that was state of the art in 1768. One can look over Captain Cook’s Great Cabin where he worked, dined, and shared quarters with the world famous botanist Joseph Banks. The replica is under the command of its regular master aptain Ross Mattson. While every advantage to power her by wind will be used in every respect as Cook’s original vessel could, she also carries engines, generators, an electric galley, showers, and safety equipment hidden in the cargo hold where the historic provisions were originally kept. Her 2011 voyage can be viewed in a daily log/ blog beginning here: http://anmm.wordpress.com/2011/04/15/day-1-%e2%80%93-sydney-to-brisbane-fond-farewells/.

The masts, bowsprit, deck, and topsides are all laminated Douglas fir on the HMB Endeavor. The Original ship, the HMS Endeavor, had spruce or fir as the main wood. The keel, lower hull, and frame of the ship is made from Western Australian hardwood jarrah while the HMS was of oak or elm. The HMB Endeavor’s sails are made from a synthetic canvas called Duradon while the original was of flax canvas. Over 18 miles of rope is used in the rigging. The six anchors with four carried on the bow weighing just under a ton in weight were replicated from those found after being lost from the original Endeavor on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770. The anchors are raised by the catheads and winched up by the windlass, all of which are replicated from the specifics of the original ship. The seats of ease are also replicated that are located by the catheads. The HMB Endeavor strikes the ship’s bell to tell the time of day – struck each half hour. A four hour watch is comprised of 1-8 bells with one hour indicated by two bells struck closely together. The firehearth down below has been replicated as a huge iron stove sitting on a stone hearth set on tin and sand to protect the deck in the best way possible to mimic the HMS Endeavor as a working model. It gained such attention in that it works and cooks 18th century type meals so well, it was featured in the BBC documentary “The Ship” filmed on board in 2001. Various 18th century replicas of kitchen and feasting items are on display. On the hatch are displayed various casks, containers, and sailmaker’s tools. A piece of pig iron ballast from the original ship recovered from the Endeavor Reef in Queensland is lashed to the central pillar representing the only original item on board. Hammocks and swinging cots were replicated and used by the operational crew. Mattresses onboard are handmade following 1760 specifications stuffed with wool and cotton waste. The latticed pantries were used for food storage and the preparation areas where Captain Cook would make plans is now where the navigation equipment is stored. The cabin of Charles Green, the Royal Society appointed astronomer, contains a copy of his original hand-made paper journal he made observations in by quill. The replicated curtains and bedspread are an attempt to match that which his wife originally made for him. The cabin shared by the artists, Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan contain copies of Parkinson’s paintings, clothes, books, and personal effects. A marine was posted in the lobby of the ship day and night to protect the captain. Captain James Cook’s cabin is the largest on board with replicas of his desk, books, charts, and uniform on display. All sheets (linen) and curtains (wool) are hand loomed and hand finished. James Cook and Joseph Banks shared the cabin, replicas of his cloak he traded in New Zealand, shaving gear, and collection of shells from the voyage are in this room.

The heating stove is replicated from the one recovered in the 1984 discovery of the HMS Pandora wreck sunk on the Great Barrier Reef while returning Bounty mutineers in 1791. Corner cupboards and serving table show replicated bottles and pewter. The wooden trunnel in the sternpost surrounded by a brass ring was carrid aboard the US Shutle Endeavour’s maiden flight in 1992. Many gifts from the indigenous community are scattered throughout the Great Cabin including an Australian Aboriginal dalungda (nautilus shell) pendant, maori taiaha war staff, maori manaia of carved whale bone, australian aboriginal dithol, bunch of feathers, sooke indian paddle, french boomerang, South American seed, Australian Aboriginal boomerang and message stick.

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HMS Endeavour

HMS Endeavour
* 1764 – 1778 * Royal Navy, Plymouth, Great Britain *

The HMS Endeavor, also known as the “HM Bark Endeavor”, was built by Thomas Fishburn Whitby for the Royal Navy of England as a “Bark” type ship with over 368 tons burthen, a length of 106 feet, a beam of over 29 feet, as a full rigged ship designed for scientific research missions. It possesses over 3,321 square yards of sail. It has the ability to clock over 8 knots maxium (13-15 km/hour). She could house a crew of 94 which included 71 ship’s company, 12 Royal Marines, 11 civilians, and armament. She was first launched in June of 1764 as the collier “Earl of Pembroke” for 2800 Pounds. Purchased by the Navy in March of 1768 and refitted at Deptford to be commissioned a few months later as “His Majesty’s Bark the Endeavor” for a scientific mission to the Pacific exploring the seas for the legendary “Terra Australis Incognita” or “Unknown Great Southern Land” after the Royal Society lobbied King George III to accomplish the mission. The Royal Society originally wanted noted hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple to lead the expedition. The Admiralty would not let this be and appointed a relatively unknown Lieutenant James Cook to the mission. She was commanded by Lieutenant Captain James Cook who took her on a journey for the Western discovery of Australia and New Zealand from 1769 until 1771. Normally collier ships would not be used for such as quest, but it was believed at the time that these vessels were of the most sea-worthy and could carry a large cargo. She set sail from Plymouth in August 1768, rounding Cape Horn, onwards to Tahiti for arrival in June of 1769 to chart and observe the transit of Venus across the sun so scientists could measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun. She explored the South Seas and granted Cook the privilege to discover, chart, and claim for England the Pacific Islands of Huahine, Raiatea, and Borbora. Cook first sailed south and upon not encountering land went west. On October 6, 1769 he sighted the east coast of New Zealand at Poverty Bay. Cook and his crew circumnavigated New Zealand until March of 1770 creating the first complete charts of that country. In April of 1770 she became the first seagoing vessel to reach the East coast of Australia at Botany Bay. From there she sailed north along the coast, beaching on the Great Barrier Reef only later to beach n the mainland along the Endeavor River. She was the first to almost completely chart the entire east coast of Australia. Seven weeks of repairs and refitting, she was back to sail in October 1770 onwards to Batavia and back to England. She arrived in July that year. One of Cook’s crew, Joseph Banks, had phenomenal reports of Botany Bay and the surrounding land that the British Government later sent Arthur Phillip and the first fleet to the area to establish the first European settlement in Australia. She was then used for the next three years shipping Navy stores to the Falkland Islands. She was officially de-commissioned in September 1774 and marked “Out of Service” in March 1775. She was sold into private hands in 1775 and used for naval service as a troop transport during the American Revolutionary War. The “HMS Endeavor” was renamed the “Lord Sandwich” in 1776. She had as least one commercial voyage to the Archangel in Russia. It became “scuttled” in 1778 in the Narragansett Bay outside of Newport, Rhode Island, North America where it sank to an unknown location and depth. Some relics from the wreck have been uncovered, including the cannons and anchor. A 1991 Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project known as RIMAP researched the identity of ten transports sunk as part of the Narragansett Bay blockade and confirmed the Endeavor had been renamed “Lord Sandwich” and scuttled to sunk in the Bay. She has been replicaed as the HMB Endeavor, launched in 1994 and berthed at the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney, Australia. The replica has since done two circumnavigations of the World and is now embarking upon its 2011 circumnavigation of Australia.

The Ship:

The original ship’s mast, bowsprit, and topsides were made of spruce or fir. The keel, lower hull, and ship frame was made of elm or oak. The original sails were of flax canvas. The Endeavor had six anchors with hour of these carried on the bow. The two largest was the bower anchors that weighed over a ton. The originals were lost in 1770 when the Endeavor beached on the Great Barrier Reef. These were raised and released from the catheads which are black timbers extending forward of the bow, one each side of the bowsprit and pulled up using the windlass. The windlass is a horizontal winch that is turned manually by the use of very long wooden bars. Next to the catheads are the seats of ease used by seaman. Since they didn’t have toilet paper at the time, used rags or frayed cords of rope with water was used instead. The ships bell tells the time of day struck each half hour with a four hour watch comprised of one to eight bells. One hour is accomplished by striking two bells closely together. Down below, a state of the art (for 1768) “firehearth” was used to cook the meals. It was a huge iron stove that was fed wood for fuel. It sat on a stone hearth set on tin and sand that would protect the deck. The deck itself was believed to have been lined with tin. John Thompson, Cook’s one handed cook and his mates would cook a hot breakfast and midday dinner for upwards of 94 crew members on each day for three years in length. The food was boiled in large coppers and liquid was run out via taps. The open fire in the back was for spit roasting and three-legged pots were used to stand in the embers. On the port side a small over was used to cook pies and fresh break to feed to the officers, gentlement, and the sick. After mid-day meal, the fires were extinguished and coppers cleaned with a small fire kept alight towards the back to heat water for the gentlemen, surgeon, and the captain. A typical day’s meal would consist of a breakfast of hot porridge boiled with portable soup made of beef stock and scurvy grass at 6 am, then during midday dinner was served usually consisting of boiled salt meat, sauerkraut and vegetables as available. Three days a week, pease pudding, dried fish, or cheese was substituted instead of meat to make the rations last longer. One pound of dry biscuit and a gallon of beer were issued daily. During evening meal, cold leftovers were ate. Sometimes during winter a cup of hot chocolate made with water was offered and one a week boiled raisin pudding added. The cabins and workshops on either side of the kitchen were used by the carpenter, the bosun, and the sailmaker. Under the forecastle was the forepeak which is where the anchor cables and ropes would be stored.

Upwards of 60 sailors lived in these quarters for three years and six men would mess at each table sitting on seachests that held their belongings. The crew had very little choice in much of anything on the ship, but could choose who they messed with, and every month each table would elect a cook of the mess who took their rations to the ship’s cook and then collected them and served the table, cleaning the bowls, utensils, and returned them to the mess shelves. Every man had to provide his own bowl, spoon, and mug upon which he inscribed his own mark. The aft table was set up for the marines who often messed together. On the hatch are an assortment of casks, containers, and sailmaker’s tools. All crew would mend sails including the marines, a duty that no one could refuse.

The mess deck was added when the Endeavor was refitted from the collier to take Cook and his men to the Pacific. It was placed on the existing support beams in the collier giving a very high deck head in this area and a very low deck head aft. Hammocks were slung over the tables across the deck, sleeping 14 inches apart with them lashed and stowed every morning. The sick would sling their hammock above the mess tables during the day and was cared for by his mates. Officers and the gentlemen had swinging cots as a canvas hammock with a frame base of 18 inches. While at sea, the area would not have been very crowded as one group were always on watch while it was just the opposite when at anchor.

A red baize bag contained the cat o’ nine tails and used to discipline unruly crew. Acing like a whip, this was the usual method of punishment in the Royal Navy as well as on Cook’s watch consisting of 12 lashes for disobedience, mutinous talk, or being drunk on duty. Cook didn’t use it very often. A log line and lead line were tools for measuring speed and depth. The area between the cabins was called the “mess” for the midshipmen and mates. It was here that 8 young men would sling their hammocks, store their personal effects, ate their meals, and relaxed when off duty. Items on the shelves and stern beam would be their effects. The surgeon’s brother, a 17 year old Midshipman named Jonathan Munkhouse on Captain Cook’s ship had a cabin on the mess. Six of the small cabins were used by officers who ate meals and relaxed in their mess on the deck above. These cabins would be littered with their work and personality. The Captain’s clerk Richard Orton was Cook’s record keeper and wasn’t a very popular crew mate. His ears had been cut off during a drunken brawl in his cabin. Cook never found the culprit. Cook’s Third Lieutenant was a 38 year old American colonist who previously had sailed around the world twice on the Dolphin. He was a very good officer and sportsman being the first European to shoot a kangaroo. In 1771 he was promoted to Second Lieutenant and became a very good friend to Joseph Banks travelling with him later to Iceland in 1772. He sailed with Cook during the third voyage and brought both ships home after Cook’s death. The Master Robert Molyneux was one of Cook’s navigators who also performed boat work and storage of supplies. At age 22 he died of dysentery during return travel. The 29 years old Lieutenant Zachary Hicks was second in command to Captain Cook. He unfortunately died of tuberculosis during the voyage. William Munkhouse was the surgeon for Cook and represented a very intelligent educated doctor who died with his brother on the return voyage. Stephen Forwood, one of Cook’s Gunners took care of the guns and cannon. He was one of the few to be punished with the cat o’ nine tails under Cook’s authority for stealing rum but was allowed to join Cook during the second voyage. Marines on board would act as guards and policemen. They were easy to recognize with their bright red coats. They slung their hammocks port side with 4-6 inch headroom sleeping between the officers and the men to prevent mutiny. Cook sailed with 12 marines – one sergeant, a corporal, a drummer, and nine regulars. There were always 2 twenty-four hour sentry positions with one outside the captain’s cabin and the other in front of the gunpowder store or magazine to prevent anyone entering with a flame. The young boys and servants would sling their hammocks on starboard while in training for seamanship. The Swedish botanist (student of Linnaeus), Dr. Daniel Solander was aboard identifying over 1,000 new species of plants while on the voyage. The astronomer Charles Green was on board as he was appointed by the Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the sun in June 1769. He was a keen observer at sea upon whom Cook relied upon greatly when coursing through the reef on Australia’s east coast. The bedspread and curtains in his quarters were made by his wife and unfortunately he died during the return voyage of dysentery. A Swedish secretary was on board to assist the botanists, his name was Herman Sporing, and he also was a watch maker and had some medical training. He died of dysentery during the return trip. Two artists on board, Sydney Parkinson and Alexander Buchan, shared a cabin on he main floor recording what they saw throughout the journey. Unfortuantely Buchan died of epilepsy in Tahiti and Parkinson of dysentery after Batavia. Parkinson completed over 1,500 paintings and drawings during the expedition. The Captain James Cook, who died at age 40, had the largest cabin on the ship. He slept in a swinging cot that is lashed up during the day. Cook and Joseph Banks shared his cabin when Banks joined the crew. Joseph Banks was a world famous naturalist who published over 110 of his books. The Botanist, Dr. Solander would spent countless hours at his table checking the new plants collected ashore and classifying them using Linnaeus’ book “Species Plantarum”. Plants were drawn, dried, and archived.

Hatches would go below to the captain’s store room, the bread room, the clothing or slop room, the fish room, and the purser’s cabin. Stern openings are loading ports used to take in timbers and other items too long for the deck hatches. THe latticed pantries held the food/stock. The wheel/helm was manned by two sailers, one on each side, and is connected by ropes to the tiller run around the wooden drum and through a set of blocks. Poultry was stored in a hutch in front of the wheel and during storms it was not uncommon for birds to be lost during a storm. The Binnacle houses the compass, lanterns, and half-hour glass. The capstan is a vertical axis winch to hoist heavy spars, yards, and maneuver the ship at anchor.

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