The Sons of Norway is a heritage and cultural group of Norway celebrating relationships between Nordic countries. They have a lodge called the Viking Hall or Fjellheim lodge in eastern Colorado Springs. Each year they put on a Viking Market hosting a bazaar and brunch. The community and members come together to share arts, crafts, lefse, handwork, collectibles, unique gifts, baked goods, and goods. The bazaar runs from 9 am until 2 pm, with a pancake breakfast around 9 am, and lunch around 11. They held raffles with gifts donated by the various vendors all as a fundraiser for the group. It was a great time. The Tree Leaves Oracle vended its Viking crafts, gifts, and selections of drinking horns, leather works, and goods. Rating: 3.5 stars out of 5
If you would like to contact the author about this review, need a re-review, would like to advertise on this page, or have information to add, please contact us at email@example.com.
As usual, Starbucks is always on top of getting in chime with current fads, whims, and trends. Of course, “Zombies” are a year-round trend, they are just more popular in October. So to get with the spirit, Starbucks has created the “Zombie Frappacino” – a tasty an colorful blended iced drink with delicious apple and caramel flavors. Not caffeinated either, so it won’t turn you into a running zombie. A nice treat in the month of October. Limited run and selection offering. Rating: 4 stars out of 5
Ingredients: Ice, Milk, Crème Frappuccino Syrup [Water, Sugar, Salt, Natural And Artificial Flavor, Xanthan Gum, Potassium Sorbate, Citric Acid], Zombie Mocha Drizzle [Mocha Sauce (Water, Sugar, Cocoa Processed With Alkali, Vanillin), Pink Powder (Dextrose, Fruit And Vegetable Color [Apple, Cherry, Radish, Sweet Potato])], Green Caramel Apple Powder [Dextrose, Fruit And Vegetable Color (Spirulina, Turmeric), Natural Flavors, Citric Acid].
If you would like to contact the author about this review, need a re-review, would like to advertise on this page, or have information to add, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Oweynagat Cave – Cave of the Cats
– Gateway to the Underworld and the Morrigan’s Palace. Rathcrohan / Rosscommon, Ireland
GPS: 53.79677, -8.31038 Article/Research by Thomas Baurley/Leaf McGowan/Technogypsie Productions, 10 October 2017
One of my most favorite sites in Ireland is the “Cave of the Cats” underneath the realm of “Rathcrohan“. It is officially called “Oweynagat” and pronounced “Owen-ne-gatt”.
The Cave is also labelled “Uaimh na gCat”, Irish translating to “Cave of the Cats”. When I first visited this site we had a tremendously hard time finding it. We found where it was supposed to be, but it lay behind fencing on a farmer’s field. We knocked on the farmer’s door, and there was no answer. A neighbor saw us, asked what we were doing and who we were, and he showed us the entrance, giving us permission to enter. It was a small hole under some Fairy thorn trees. The Site is actually a natural narrow limestone cave that hosts a man-made souterrain at its entrance. This is seen by all as the official entrance to the Otherworld and home to the Morrigan or Medh. In the Medieval Period of Ireland, it was labeled “Ireland’s Gate to Hell”. It is a particular sacred site for the Pagan holiday and festival of “Samhain” or Halloween.
It is said that during the Feast of Samhain, the dead, their God/desses, and Spirits, would rise from their graves and walk the Earth. This cave is one of the main places where Spirits and the dead associated with the Fae and/or the Morrigan, would re-surface including creatures, monsters, and the un-dead. There exists an Irish legend based off the “Adventures of Nera” where a warrior is challenged to tie a twig around the ankle of a condemned man on Samhain eve, after agreeing to get him some water would discover strange houses and wouldn’t find water until the third house. Upon returning him back to captivity would witness Rathcroghan’s royal buildings destroyed by the spirits. After this he must follow the fairy host to the Sidhe where he meets a woman who tells him the vision he saw will happen a year from now unless his mortal comrades are warned. He leaves the Sidhe and informs Ailill of his vision who destroys the Sidhe in response.
Some believe the “síd” or the Sidhe of this tale is either the Mound of Rathcroghan or Oweynagat, the Cave of the Cats. It makes the most sense that the Cave of the Cats is where the destructive creatures and fae emerged. There was a triple-headed monster called the Ellen Trechen that went on a rampage across the country before being killed by Amergin, father of Conal Cernach. There have been tales of small red birds emerging from the cave withering every plant they breathed on before being hunted to their death by the Red Branch. There is also legends of herds of pigs with similar powers of decay emerging from the cave until hunted and killed by Ailill and Medb.
The name itself, “Oweynagat” is believed to refer to the Magical wild cats featured in the tale of “Bricriu’s Feast” that emerge from this cave to attack the three Ulster warriors before being tamed by Cúchulainn. Some also claim that the cave was named after Irusan, the King of the Cats, who is featured in Irish fairy tales and hailed from a cave near Clonmacnoise (her home). Another tale from the 18th century CE tells of a woman trying to catch a runaway cow that fell into this cave (nevermind the entrance being too small) and followed it into this cave. It is said the cow and woman emerged miles away in County Sligo, near Keshcorran. There is also a legend of a woman that was told to have killed a monster cat in this cave, turning the woman into a great warrior, and this is why its called “Oweynagat”, Cave of the Cats.
The Birthplace of Medb
It is also believed that this cave is the actual physical birthplace for Queen Medb. The legend states that the Fairy Queen/Goddess Étain who was fleeing her human husband with her fairy lover Midir came here. Midir wanted to visit a relative named Sinech (the large breasted one) who lived in the cave. Within the cave was said to be a great otherworldly palace where a maid servant named Crochan Crogderg (“Blood Red Cup”) lived, and she had granted Midir and Etain entrance. It was here that Crochan was believed to have given birth to a daughter named “Medb“.
Nestled under a fairy tree in a farmer’s field (private property) is a small opening that really only looks large enough for a house cat to fit through. But if a human gets down on their hands and knees, can shimmy into this small hole, they will be presented with a small chamber that connects to a passageway that continually increases to a massive tunnel wider and higher than one could fathom. At the inner lintel of this entrance is an Ogham inscription that bears the words “VRAICCI…MAQI MEDVVI” translating to “FRAECH” and “SON OF MEDB”. Some also translate this to mean “The Pillar of Fraech son of Madb”. This is also seen as the birthplace of Medb. A second ogham inscription, barely visible, reads “QR G SMU” but has not been translated. This beginning chamber is actually a man-made souterrain at the entrance to a natural narrow limestone cave. The souterrain was originally contained within an earthen mound that was later damaged by a road construction project in the 1930’s. The souterrain is made of drystone walling, orthostats, lintels, and stones that measure approximately 10.5 meters from the entrance to the natural cave’s opening.
After crawling on one’s hands and feet, the passage increases in width and height, eventually one can stand up, and eventually the tunnel becomes wide and tall enough that a small Giant could move through it. This is the passage of the Fae, and leads to the Morrigan’s Lair. As one continues down, they’ll find a caved in shamble that is behind a muddy pool of water. If one successfully climbs up and over it, the passage continues to another area that is caved in. Apparently workers on the surface planted a utility pole that collapsed this section of the tunnel. Beyond this is believed to be the Entrance to the Otherworld, and the Morrigan’s Lair. This is actually a natural limestone cave that has been mapped approximately 37 meters deep.
The Queen of the Dark Fae, the Goddess of the Underworld, of Darkness, and Battle, rules the world of the Fae from this place. It is believed that every Samhain, she is pulled on a chariot out of the Cave of the Cats by a one-legged chestnut horse alongside various creatures such as those mentioned above. Some also say on occasion she leaves the cave with a cow, guided by a giant with a forked staff, to give to the Bull of Cúailgne. She is also known to take the bull of a woman named Odras who follows her into the cave before falling under an enchanted sleep upon awakening to see the Morrigan who repeatedly whispers a spell over her, turning her into a river, the same river that feeds the muddy pool at the shamble. Apparently the cave is seen as a portal through which the Morrigan would pass in order to work with Medb as Goddess of Battle. She drove her otherworldly cattle into the cave every sunset. The Morrigan was blamed to have stolen a herd of cattle who belonged to a woman named Odras, and upon following to Morrigan to retrieve them, was turned into a lake by the Goddess. As is the story of Nera, a servant of Medb who met a Fairy woman here in this cave. He married her, and she warned him of Medb’s palace being burnt to the ground next Samhain by the creatures of the otherworld. Upon hearing this, Medb stationed her forces in the cave each Samhain to protect Cruachan from destruction.
Rathcrohan is the legendary burial grounds of the Kings of Coannaught. The region covers approximately 518 hectares hosting more than 20 ring forts, burial mounds, megalithic tombs such as the Relig na Ri (burial ground of the Kings), Rath na dTarbh (For the Bulls), and the Rathbeg. The archaeological site is massive, with earthworks spread over the region with the Grave of King Dathi (Last Pagan King of Ireland) as a 2 meter high standing stone being one of the few physical landmarks left that can be seen. This is also the site of the mythical battle of the “Tain Bo Cuailgne” that remains in the hearts, minds, and folklore of the people of Tulsk and Rathcroghan recorded in the Ancient Irish Epic of the Tain Bo Cuiailgne, the “Cattle Raid of Cooley”. The Tain Bo tells the story of Queen Maeve of Connaught and her armies that pursued the Grat Brown Bull of Cooley, the mighty warrior Cuchulain who does battle with the armies here, and his foster brother Erdia as he defends the Brown Bull, and the province of Ulster. There is a “Tain Trail Cycling and Touring Route” that re-traces the journey that Queen Maeve and her armies traveled from her Royal Palace at Rathcroghan across Ireland to the Cooley Peninsula in County Louth, the home of the Brown Bull. Rathcrohan hosts over 60 National Monuments here.
Druid School: Oweynagat Cave of the Cats. Website referenced January 2012.
Fenwick, J. et al 1977 “Oweynagat”. Irish Speleology 16, 11-14.
Hannon, Ed 2012 “Visions of the Past: Oweynagat Cave”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://visionsofthepastblog.com/2012/10/01/oweynagat-cave-souterrain-co-roscommon/.
Mulranney, R. n.d “Caves of Ireland: Oweynagat Cave of the Cats”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://cavesofireland.wordpress.com/home/caves/oweynagat-cave-of-the-cats-co-roscommon/.
Waddell, J. 1983 “Rathcroghan – A Royal Site”. Journal of Irish Archaeology 1.
Wikipedia n.d. “Rathcroghan”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rathcroghan.
In the heart of nowhere is this unique little town of 800-900 inhabitants surrounded by the lumber industry. It however possesses one of the most intriguing architectural high schools I’ve ever encountered making it a gem. The town was created in the late 1800’s after construction of a railway line from Roseburg came through the area – established by Solomon Abraham, the local right-of-way agent in 1881-1883. He originally called the town “Julia” after his wife, but there was a dispute with the chief engineer over this, and it was changed to the name of “Glendale”. In 1883 the post office was established for Julia, and changed names later that year to Glendale. The area was destroyed by fires in 1928 and rebuilt shortly after.
“The Hotel California” ~
A fictional place, but full of urban myths and legends.
The “California Hotel” photo above, is NOT of course the place of the legend from the Song, nor was it the headquarters for Anton LaVey’s Church of Satan. I’m actually not sure of the history of the actual hotel in this photo, but it called to mind my memories about this urban legend. (The photo above MIGHT be the California Hotel of historic landmarks, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Hotel as it was in Oakland. The California Hotel historic is a important cultural center for the African-American community of San Francisco’s East ay during the 40’s-60’s, it experienced severe economic difficulties and turned into subsidized housing in the 80s)
I first came across the urban legend in 1990 at the Starwood festival when I was hanging out with a Satanist from the Church of Satan who first told me the tale … “one of the members of the Eagles was at this bar and got drunk with Anton LaVey’s daughter, she brought him home that night to her hotel room (at the Hotel California where supposedly the headquarters of the Church of Satan resided), they became lovers. Apparently he was so tied up in the affair with her that he disregarded showing up to band practice or responsibilities, and in a sense “never could leave” the hotel. When He snapped out of it, he apparently wrote the song about the experience hanging with the Church of Satan. A similar tale was told to me by my mentor Isaac Bonewits, founder of ADF (Ar nDraoicht Fein – A Druid Fellowship) who briefly joined the Church in his youth, but was so rambunctious and a trouble maker, the Church of Satan actually kicked him out of their group. (I do know that to be true as I’ve seen historic film reels of him in their ranks. Apparently he was recruited after creating a parodic devil’s throne upon which he proselytized on at UoC Berkeley to harass the local bible thumper on campus. They ran across him, were impressed, and asked him to join. )
I digress, back to the original legend. Some claim that Larry Salter, the Eagle’s manage admitted in the Waco Tribune-Herald (Feb. 28, 1982) that the Eagles were involved with the Church of Satan. Oddly the Church of Satan was first legally registered as “Hotel California” (legal entity name). But the Eagles claim far and wide, they were not associated with the Church and it was a leap that people jumped to. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotel_California)
The Eagles claim that the “Hotel California” is an allegory about hedonism and greed in Southern California in the 1970s. As they first experienced California at that time, they were impressioned that California was about money, drugs, women, and fame – true hedonism, and they were disquieted by it all pushing that un-ease into their lyrics to warn others about the dark underside of such adulation – “a loss of innocence”, corruption of the artist in California imprisoned in a gilded prison that the artist freely enters that he cannot leave. It is not actually a place, but a metaphor of the west’s music industry and its effect on musicians ensnared by it. (http://www.snopes.com/music/songs/hotel.asp)
To make matters worse, many conspiracy theorists have marked that “Anton LaVey” (leader of the Church of Satan, San Francisco) can be seen in the balcony window as depicted on the album cover for the record “Hotel California”.
Mirrors on the ceiling,
The pink champagne on ice
And she said ‘We are all just prisoners here, of our own device’
And in the master’s chambers,
They gathered for the feast
They stab it with their steely knives,
But they just can’t kill the beast
Last thing I remember, I was
Running for the door
I had to find the passage back
To the place I was before
‘Relax,’ said the night man,
‘We are programmed to receive.
You can check-out any time you like,
But you can never leave!’
The urban myth has odd facts and twisted thoughts behind it, and whether or not those with the inside knowledge are telling the truth and the Eagles are covering it up to save their reputation, or it is quite a bit of hog-wash and conjecture, we’ll never know. Frey and Henley claim that as much as people want to know what the song was about, they really don’t know themselves. It was an attempt at a “twilight zone” influence and many beliefs are abound. (http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-35347075)
This great little coffee and sandwich shop was such a Denver charm. Unfortunately it is currently no longer. Hopefully it will come back. It was a fabulous alternative to the mainstream coffee shops with great chai, great ambiance, hookahs, performances, readings, belly dancing, and a Middle Eastern vibe. Great hangout and get togethers. Good WiFi. Rating: 5 star out of 5.
Faerieworlds/Neverworlds Winter Celebration 2011: Pirates vs. Faeries Masquerade Ball January 29, 2011: McDonald Theater, Eugene, Oregon
One of my favorite dances annually is the Faerieworlds Winter celebrations where they bring together the magical acts of Faerieworlds indoors to the McDonald theater in downtown Eugene, Oregon. Family and friends within the Faerie realms of Oregon, Washington, and beyond come together, dressed to the nines in Faerie and fantasy costumes ready to mesmerize one another in their frolick together. This year was the theme of “Pirates vs. Faeries” as they dance battled the two realms. It was a great display of art, theater, and magic. The magical band “Woodland” enchanted all with their otherworldly music and presence, as well as being hosts to the party. Drinks, festivity, dancing, friends, and family were blended into an amazing night. I was on a bit of jetlag as I soared the skies and roads with a rental car for a 36 hour visit to family coming from Colorado. It was worth every minute. Rating: 5 stars out of 5
http://www.denverartmuseum.org/ * 720-865-5000 * Denver Art Museum * 100 W 14th Ave Pkwy * Denver, CO 80204
A day of art all around for me as me and friends wandered into the Denver Art Museum on their ‘free day’ which is the first Saturday of the month. Being my first visit to Denver’s impressive Art Museum, I enjoyed my visit and will definitely be back. Hosted in Denver’s Civic Center, this Art Museum is reknown for its collections that expanse well over 68,000 works of art and has quite a notable collection of American Indian Art. Originally founded in 1893 at the Denver Artist’s Club, it took on the name of the “Denver Art Association” in 1916 and moved into its first galleries in 1918 where it became known as its current namesake. Taking over the current building in 1971 that was designed by Gio Ponti and local architect James Sudler as a 24-sided, 7 story architectural art piece in of itself. In 2006, the Duncan Pavillion grew to a 5,700 square feet second story additon to the original Morgan Wing clad in titanium and glass. The museum hosts nine curatorial departments: (1) Modern and Contemporary, (2) Native Arts, (3) Architecture, Design and Graphics, (4) Asian Art, (5) New World Art, (6) Painting and Sculpture, (7) Photography, (8)Western Art, and (9) Textile Arts. The Museum has and does display the arts of India, China, Japan, Southwest Asia, Tibet, Nepal, Southeast Asia, religious art, traditional folk crafts, modern and contemporary collections of 20th-century artists including the Herbert Bayer collection, Man Ray, Andy Warhol, David Hockney, Robert Motherwell, Damien Hirst, Philip Guston, Dan Flavin, John DeAndrea, Gottfried Helnwein, Yue Minjun, Native American arts (spanning several hundred tribes) with Northwest Coastal woodcarvings, Naskapi painted leather garments, Winnebago twined weaving, Plains Indian beadwork, Navajo weaving, Pueblo pottery, California basketry; Oceanic arts spanning all the major islands with wood carvings, painted bark cloth from Somoa, Tonga, and Hawaii; Melanesian collections from Papua New Guinea & New Ireland; drawings, paintings; African Arts with sculptures, textiles, jewelry, paintings, printmaking, drawings, Yoruba works; New World Arts; Latin American arts including ceramics, stone, gold, jade, furnishings, silver from Spanish Colonial periods; Pre-Columbian arts from Mesoamerica, lower Central America, and South America; Mayan art from Mexico, guatemala, and Belize; European and American paintings and photographic works; Coptic and pre-Columbia textiles; Western American Art; the Harmsen Collection; and many more …. The Museum cannot be completely covered in a day – so make your visit to span the weekend. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.
One of Colorado’s Society for Creative Anachronism’s (SCA) premiere events … Battlemoor represents the re-creation of the “Age of Chivalry” during whence the Dark Ages have ended and the Middle Ages begin. The focus was on the chivalric ideals of heroism, picturesque castles, glorious churches, pangeants, camps, tournaments, charity and gallant self-sacrifice as it swept across Europe. With active members of the SCA working hard to replicate the historic beauty of the Period with costumes, arts, crafts, battles, competitive tournaments, encampments, parties, and events. From Vikings to Knights, Gypsies to wanderers … it was like stepping into the past. With the backdrop of the amazing picturesque mountains of Buena Vista they recreated the Kingdom of Battlemoor. A six day camping event of feasting, swimming, battling, fighting, debating, conversing, partying, and friendships. It was put on by the Kingdom of the Outlands, one of the 20 Kingdoms found within the SCA.
Our first experience with this amazing event was as vendor’s … The Tree Leaves Oracle sharing cultural arts from Vikings, Pirates, Middle Ages, and the fantastical beliefs of faeries, creatures, and folklore. We had a wonderful time making new friends and re-acquainting with old friends. My son Cian had a blast playing with friends he met at Northern Realms War as did I. The Vikings of the Northern Realms War as well as the Gypsy Camp enchanted us with evening hours of festivity, food, drink, and fun. Thank you all. The Beach party enchanted the wee prince as he won rubber knight duckies during the Marshmallow catapult game and Spear the Santa games. Roasting marshmallows on the fire, hot dogs, pancake breakfasts, Roasted goats, pigs, and bacon wrapped corn were amongst a few of the delicacies we were treated to. The Snow Dragon Inn blessed me with many libations. The Merchant coordinator did an amazing job laying out the site, making sure the vendors were well cared for, and had free lemonade/snacks daily for us to take a break at. Thank you. The pond was cold, but refreshing swim, as was the river. The Cottonwood Meadows site was phenomenal. We’ll be back, It was a great time. Rating: 5 stars out of 5
243 E 120th Ave, Thornton, CO 80233 * Phone: (303) 451-7900 *
A great comfortable and luxurious hotel in the heart of Northglenn / Thornton, Colorado. We had the pleasure of staying there during Magic Fest. I can’t comment on price but assume it was reasonable as I didn’t pay for the room, my ex-wife did. The room was spacious, had a nice sofa bed (which I slept on), and a large king for her and my son. The cable and internet seemed to be of good consistency and speed, and the bathroom clean and efficient. The swimming pool was nice, although the jacuzzi had a bit of sand on its bottom. The Breakfast buffet was very good with hot eggs, bacon, oatmeal, cereals, waffles, and other goodies. It was fulfilling. Overall a very good stay. Rating: 4.5 stars out of 5 Visited 8/19-20/17.
Rolling Volume Chair, 1989 Ron Arad, British artist, born in Israel, 1951 Stainless steel and lead, manufactured by One Off, London. Gift of Robert and Lisa Kessler, 2012.324
“They are still chairs … There always had to be some attributes to do with sitting … You could say that the Volumes series is always functional, but doesn’t always have to be practical. – Ron Arad.” ~ Display at Denver Museum of Art.”
“Ron Arad approached design largely from a sculptural perspective in the late 1980s and early 1990s, driven by the materials and tools he had on hand. The Rolling Volumes – large rocking armchairs – demonstrate Arad’s fascination and experimentation with the techniques and visual effects of welding and polishing steel. Early examples were rough with visible welds. As Arad’s skills improved, he achieved the smooth, highly reflective surface seen here. Heavily weighted at the back with lead, the chair reverses the conventional operation of rocking and tilts upward dramatically when not in use.”~ Display at Denver Museum of Art.
The Money Museum is part of the Denver Federal Reserve and is located along the 16th street mall. It is open Monday through Friday and offers free tours during the day. This little one room display enables the visitor to learn about the Federal Reserve and how money works. While there is no admission, you need to be at least 18 years of age and go through a screening. After the tour, they gift you a bag of shredded money. I actually didn’t really enjoy the visit. Glad it was free. They need a better display and presentation. Rating: 2 star out of 5 (Visited 8/5/17)
The iconic “Main Street” that most think of when thinking of the center of Denver. This foot traffic and shuttle bus strip dotted by upscale stores, chain restaurants, and entertainment avenues is one of the hotspots for tourism to Denver. It is a central drop off location for those staying downtown. It offers a lot of activities for its patrons and visitors. It is a central location for entertainment, festivals, fairs, shows, events, flash mobs, street performances, and zombie crawls. It boasts a free transit mall ride or shuttle bus called the Free MallRide. I’ve had many memories of this place from the Denver Freeze to the Denver Zombie Crawls, to late night and daytime activities. During the summer, the center strip was dotted with free pianos to play, lounge chairs, games, chess, bean bags, rolling chairs, and local performances. ~ Leaf McGowan. Visited 8/5/17 – 5 stars out of 5
The tree-lined pedestrian and transit mall runs approximately 125 miles across downtown Denver from Wewatta Street at the historic Union Square to the Civic Center Station at 16th and Broadway. There are over 300 stores dotted along the corridor ranging from chains to locally owned shops. As costs become over the top, more chains have replaced local businesses through time. There are over 50 restaurants and the Denver Pavillions Mall. The Mall opened in 1982 as a pedestrian strip running from Market Street to Broadway but has since expanded to Wynkoop Street in 2001 and to Union Station in 2002. It was designed by Pei Cobb Freed and Partners.
Directory of Services: Please visit web site linked above. As we review various places and events, they will be linked here in the near future.
Summer of 2017 the Denver Museum of Contemporary Art is featuring the creative works of Derrick Valasquez. A local Denver artist, Derrick was originally born in Lodi, California. He received his Master of Fine Arts in Sculpture from Ohio State University in 2008. He claims currently that his style is to work with manufactured and industrially engineered materials in a portrayal of natural force, affected by gravity and forced with tension pushing an object’s flexibility to a breaking point. He utilizes marine vinyl, masonite, hand-made half-scale 2x4s, plywood, and found objects to create his art and teases a psychological relation to their dimensions and conditions. Before this new style, he was creating and manipulating works that would constantly loop back on itself in a forward progression making an unclear outcome until one takes’ stock in the process leading up to the end product as a form of learning. He takes a visual representation of large two-dimensional and three-dimensional installations to a social outlook with the art as physical manifestations of the metaphors they represent. He’s a fan of height, stacking layers, and polished finishes depicting the multiple layers of meaning in materials – how they are used and manipulated.
The exhibit was minimalist when I visited on 8/5/17. It really didn’t convey his talent in my opinion. The exhibit was rather bland. I did find his “Obstructed Views” collection of photographs on property boundaries intriguing and new. But some of the material found objects were just pieces of architectural materials laying around. Not really my cup of tea. But to be fair and honest, I’m not a fan of contemporary or modern art. So perhaps I don’t get it. Therefore I possess a bias and don’t see what others are seeing. Rating: 3 stars of 5
The Denver Museum of Contemporary Art is currently (Summer 2017) featuring American photographer Ryan McGinley and his works based around “The Kids are Alright”. The exhibit did Ryan a dis-justice as it didn’t portray his fantastical new works and creations. It rather stemmed on his earlier works that honestly disenchanted me and I left the exhibit not impressed I really didn’t see anything ‘alright’ in the exhibit. Perhaps meant to be an in-your-face exhibit of the life and times of his shenanigans, I personally don’t see what all the hype is about this particular collection of works. I like his current works. I love some of his travel photography and collective works of recent. His work is creative and unique as of late, but this earlier “The Kids Are Alright” works – outside of ‘maybe’ capturing some unexpected moments, was just lacking. That’s the word of the day … “lacking”. I really didn’t see quality in the photography either, but then again, I’m not a fan of contemporary art – and maybe I just don’t get it. It was really sub-standard, the photos and works they displayed in the exhibit. While he has 5 star work today, I’ll have to rate this exhibit with a One star out of 5. Rating: 1 star of 5
Ryan was a popular photographer in the late 1990’s. He was born on October 17, 1977 and grew up in New Jersey and New York City inspired by skateboarders, graffiti artists, fringe museums and artists. He began photography in 1998 By the age of 25, in 2003, he was one of the youngest artists to put on a solo show at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the same year named Photographer of the Year by American Photo Magazine. Years later in 2007 he was awarded the Young Photographer Infinity Award by the International Center of Photography and by 2009 honored at the Young Collector’s Council’s Artists Ball at the Guggenheim Museum. Snowboard instructor at Campgaw Mountain in New Jersey from 1992-1995, by 1997 he was a graphic design student at the Parsons School of Design in New York. By 1998 he was living in the East village and was known to have covered the walls of his apartment with polaroid pics of everyone who visited him there. He experimented with photography styles when studying at Parsons putting together the images as a self-made book called “The Kids are Alright” named after film about the music band “The Who”. The scholar and curator “Sylvia Wolf” who organized together his exhibition claimed that “The skateboarders, musicians, graffiti artists and gay people in Mr. McGinley’s early work ‘know what it means to be photographed. […] His subjects are performing for the camera and exploring themselves with an acute self-awareness that is decidedly contemporary. They are savvy about visual culture, acutely aware of how identity can be not only communicated but created. They are willing collaborators.” As his works are supposedly portraying liberation and hedonism, I didn’t see it … at least not to my standards or definitions of such portrayal.
He has changed photographic style of capturing his friends in real-life situations to become more envisioned situations that can be photographed such as at festivals, art schools, and street castings. TIME magazine stated that photography is about freezing a moment in time, and McGinley’s is about freezing a stage in a lifetime as a fly on the wall ready to capture any moment evolving to setting up the photos to make them happen as waiting around he began to believe was a waste of time. Perhaps his new works are better done and captured. These were not portrayed in this exhibit, at least from not what I saw. By 2009 McGinley returned to experimenting with traditional studio portraiture and moving into digital photography.
His early works were done on 35 mm film using Yashica T4s and Leica R8s. Today he utilizes digital photography. He contributes to various high-profile charities and is passionate about raising funds for HIV/AIDS awareness and/or treatment. He has become nicknamed the “Pied Piper of the Downtown Art World”. In 2008, the band Sigur Rós from Iceland used one of his images for their 5th album and his work inspired their album “Gobbledigook”. He has also photographed Lady Gaga for Rolling Stone, Lorde for Dazed and Confused, and Beyonce for Beat Magazine.
The whimsical humpty dumpy egg sculptures off Colorado Boulevard between Tejon and Pikes Peak have a strange history in Colorado Springs, especially having become the target of multiple vandalism accounts and pranks. They were originally created by artisan Kimber Fiebiger of Minneapolis who submitted one as an installation for the annual Art on the Streets program in 2003. The first one was called “Hump D” and sat in front of the Pikes Peak Center. Local businesses were impressed and commissioned additional ones. One was stolen in 2003, others vandalized over several years, and cost the city much in repairs and replacements. There are now four of them on south Tejon near Colorado Avenue. There is the one that sits on the wall, another playing a violin, another reading a book, and one toppling and hanging on for its life under the parking garage. Rating: 5 stars out of 5(Visited 7/20/17)
Interested in this review or story? have things to add? please comment below. Do you enjoy this article? if so, please consider buying the writer a chai, lunch, or help cover gas funds for covering these sites. Thomas Baurley is a work from home single father sharing his inspirations, treasures, findings, and travels. Tell him thank you if you like his work, Please donate. Need a new or updated review? contact him for more information. Continue reading The Humpty Dumpty Brothers, Colorado Springs, Colorado→
A bit of greenspace in the heart of downtown Colorado Springs. It is Colorado Springs’s first city park and was donated to the city by its founder, General William Jackson Palmer in 1871. Most famous for its Uncle Wilbur Fountain that choreographics water fountain displays to music in a jack-in-the-box fashion, a thrill set for kids splashing around and playing in the water during summers. The Park is also equipt with a playground area that the kids’ love. Unfortunately there is a bit of a homeless problem in the park, and in the past has had issues with homeless camping out. Since then, the park has beautified and cleaned up some of the distractions that scared away some patrons. The park has beautiful green grass lots with shade trees, picnic tables, horseshoe rings, shuffleboards, and during the winter on occasion an ice skating rink. On thursdays during the summer there are vendors, crafts, and food from 10 am – 4 pm. Rating: 3 stars out of 5(Visited 7/20/17)Other Reviews. Also nearby is the water fountain park called America the Beautiful Park where kids can also play and splash around in the fountain water to cool off during the summers.
Interested in this review or story? have things to add? please comment below. Do you enjoy this article? if so, please consider buying the writer a chai, lunch, or help cover gas funds for covering these sites. Thomas Baurley is a work from home single father sharing his inspirations, treasures, findings, and travels. Tell him thank you if you like his work, Please donate. Need a new or updated review? contact him for more information. Continue reading Acacia Park, downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado→
Located right on Manitou Avenue in downtown Manitou Springs, Colorado is a sweet tasting natural Artesian soda spring called Cheyenne Spring. This sweet tasting bubbly elixir is believed to be over 20,000 years old and healing for digestive issues and osteoporosis. Drinking water this old empowers the soul with the geology of the Earth and peps the spirit. It comes from aquifers located a mile below the earth’s surface. This is one of the 7 most popular springs in the area.
Most of the Springs of Manitou were known for their health benefits, especially with digestive systems. This was especially helpful to the tribes visiting the waters as their diets were rich with wild game, the meat of which was notable for acidic effects on the body when consumed. These mineral waters helped re-balance the stomach acids.
This magical spring of Manitou has added health benefits based on its mineral contents that are well known for helping with blood pressure, nerve transmission, muscle contractions, osteoporosis, the heart, bones, teeth, and blood coagulation. It is also good for helping release energy from food digestion, regulating fluids, and stimulating the kidneys to release toxins. Magically it is a blood, bone, and heart tonic. It’s year round temperature is approximately 49-55 degrees Fahrenheit.
The waters that create this spring are said to fissure up from a mile beneath the surface fed by aquifers created from rainwater and snow melt of Pikes Peak. When the water reaches these depths, they heat up from the Earth’s core, become mineralized, and flow up through fissures and cracks in the Ute Pass fault zone where they become carbonated within limestone caverns, to the surface where they are tapped as natural springs or wells.
This was one of the natural springs frequented by the Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Jicarilla Apache, and Ute Indians throughout history. It was held as a sacred site for healing, meditation, and peace. Plains and mountain tribes agreed to peace during their visits while frequenting the springs together. It was the white man to break the peace of the area.
Fur trappers, miners, and traders came to the area and discovered the magic waters. It became an area known for curative effects in treating tuberculosis. When the Europeans and white settlers came to the area, they pushed the tribes from this area. The spring became commercialized in the 1800s. During the 1870’s, this was one of three springs located in Soda Springs park: Navajo, Cheyenne, Shoshone, and Manitou Springs.
By 1872, the Town Company, owned by Manitou Springs founder Dr. William A. Bell and his friend General William J. Palmer built a rustic stick pagoda over it and created a park called Soda Springs Park on the spot. They made the first bottling plant that year with an associated bath house combining the waters with Navajo Springs to prosper from its magical health benefits.
By the 1890’s it was contained by the current sandstone spring house by the Manitou Mineral Water Company and bottled. The spring house was constructed of stone quarried from the Kenmuir Quarry where Red Rocks open space now sits just east of town. Within the spring house is a historic copper-clad, carbon dioxide gas collector settled in the center of the cistern which the water company boasted was the world’s first mechanism to capture natural gas emitting from the source and being able to re-introduce it during the bottling process for the production of the best naturally sparkling water on the market called “Manitou table water”.
As the region was commercialized, the park diminished in size and was taken over by businesses. It was flanked by Soda Springs and Navajo Springs. When the company collapsed, which many believe was caused by a curse placed by the Ute that no white business would every prosper from the springs, the font and housing fell into disrepair until restored by the Mineral Springs Foundation in 1990-1991.
The current public font was crafted by local sculpture artisan Paul Rogers in Bronze. In June of 2011, a coli form bacteria was found in the spring closing the spring until it was dealt with. It was cleaned and re-opened shortly after. It is one of the most popular springs visited in the area.
Cheyenne Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado, USA
Cheyenne Spring is notable for its high Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Sulfate, & Potassium content. Calcium for bones, teeth, heart, blood coagulation, helps control blood pressure, heart disease, PMS, and osteoporosis. Chloride is an electrolyte helping with fluid balances. Magnesium is good for bone and tooth formation, vital for nerve conduction and muscle contractions, and aids energy release from foods. Sodium helps with blood pressure & regulates fluids. Potassium also helps with blood pressure, nerve transmission, and muscle contractions. Stimulates the kidneys & releasing toxins.
Garden of the Gods is a unique natural geological park that is located in Colorado Springs and Manitou Springs … and is a Registered National Natural Landmark. It’s open from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. in the summer and 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. in the winter. The park boasts over a million visitors a year or more.
History and Mythology
Where the Great Plains grasslands meet the low-lying pinon-juniper woodlands of the American Southwest at the base of the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains a geological upheaval occurred along the Trans-Rocky Mountain Fault system creating these spectacular features over a million years ago. Horizontal ancient beds of sandstone, limestone, and conglomerates were pushed and tilted vertically when the tectonic plates pushed together. Glaciations, wind, and water erosion shaped the features over hundreds of thousands of years.
This geologic feature was seen as sacred grounds by the original inhabitants of the area, potentially visited and used for spirituality possibly over 3,000 years ago to present. As early as 1330 B.C.E. evidence of human occupation has been found from petroglyphs, fire rings, pottery, and stone tools have been left behind. The Ute Indians claim that their people always had lived where Garden of the Gods Park now stands and their people were created there and around Manitou.
The Kiowa, Apache, Shoshone, Pawnee, Cheyenne, and Arapaho also claim their peoples visited or lived here. It was known as a pivotal crossroads and meeting place for many indigenous peoples and nomadic tribes gathered together for peace. Rivaling tribes were said to even have laid down their weapons before entering the shadows of the sandstone features.
Two sets of petroglyphs were found here – the first hidden in a crevice on the east side of South Gateway Rock depicting a circular shield-like figure divided into four parts with a rain cloud terrace image, a Thunderbird image, zigzag lines, and image of wheat or corn and a faint flower-like image with a dozen dots forming a semi-circle over its top which some experts said was done recently in the last 100 years copying Indian designs from a book. The other petroglyph is pecking in the rock discovered in the 1980’s and estimated to date to 1500 C.E. most likely an Ute Indian design potentially depicting a deer, a third of a buffalo head, and maybe a stone tool seemingly telling a story.
Alleged Native American legends of the site have been told, their authenticity unknown. Marion E. Gridley wrote in “Indian Legends of American Scenes” telling a tale about a great flood that covered all the mountains nearby Pikes Peak. As the waters receded, the Great Spirit petrified the carcasses of all animals killed by the flood into sandstone rolling them down into this valley as evidence of the Great Flood.
The second was written by Ford C. Frick saying “… in the nestling ales and on the grassy plains which lie at the foot of the Great White Mountain that points the way to heaven lived the Chosen People. Here they dwelt in happiness together. And above them on the summit of the Mighty Peak where stand the Western Gates of Heaven, dwelt the Manitou. And that the Chosen might know of his love the Manitou did stamp uon the Peak the image of his face that all might see and worship him … but one day as the storm clouds played about the Peak, the image of the Manitou was hid .. and down from the North swept a barbaric tribe of giants, taller than the spruce which grew upon the mountain side and so great that in their stamping strides they shook the earth. And with the invading host came gruesome beasts – unknown and awful in their mightiness – monstrous beasts that would devour the earth and tread it down … and as the invading hosts came on the Chosen Ones fell to the earth at the first gentle slope of mountain and prayed to Manitou to aid it. Then came to pass a wondrous miracle, the clouds broke away and sunshine smote the Peak and from the very summit, looking down, appeared the face of Manitou himself. And stern he looked upon the advancing host, and as he looked the giants and beasts turned to stone within their very steps … “
If this site was in Australia or Europe, it would be named castles and fortresses associated with Gods, Deities, Spirits, or Faeries.
Westerners first discovered the features in 1859 by two surveyors who were here to build Old Colorado City. M.S. Beach, one of the surveyors thought it would be a great location for a beer garden. The other surveyor replied to him stating “A Beer Garden? Why this is fit place for the Gods to assemble. We will call it Garden of the Gods”. General William Jackson Palmer who was known for his contributions of building Colorado Springs convinced his colleague Charles Elliot Perkins to buy the 240 acres embracing the features. In 1909 his children donated the land to the city of Colorado Springs.
The original family that donated the land to the public required that it would always remain free, and that is what it remains today. Garden of the Gods stands as a great park for hiking, walking, bicycling, rock climbing, picnicking, special events, and weddings … The park has it all … protected as 1,387 scenic acres … and presents itself as a unique tourist / information center, with a theater and gift shop near the entrance. Within are 15 miles of trails ranging in various levels of difficulty from beginner to advance for hiking and exercise.
A historical video greets you at the welcome center and tells the tale that began in the 1870’s when the railroads carved westward, when General William Jackson Palmer founded the city of Colorado Springs and upon discovering this natural beauty, urged his friend Charles Elliott Perkins, the head of Burlington Railroad, to make his home where the park now stands. He lived there until he finished his railway from Chicago to Colorado Springs. His railroad project wasn’t a success and never made its destination in the springs.
His homestead eventually became his summer home in 1879. He purchased 480 acres and never actualized building on it, leaving the land in its natural state and for the public. When he died in 1907, he made arrangements for the land to be a public park, and this was enacted by his children in 1909 forever as the Garden of the Gods “where it shall remain free to the public, where no intoxicating liquors shall be manufactured, sold, or dispensed, where no building or structure shall be erected except those necessary to properly care for, protect, and maintain the area as a public park.” That is exactly what they’ve done …. and its a beautiful place to be.
The second largest city in the state of Colorado, following under Denver in populace, Colorado Springs often nicknamed “The Springs” is a municipal hub for government, military, education, religion, sports, and recreation. It is the heart of El Paso County and is located in Central Colorado on the eastern slopes of the Rockies, in the shadow of Cheyenne Mountain, NORAD, and Pike’s Peak. It is located along Fountain Creek as its main water source. The region of Colorado Springs is located within the high desert of the Southern Rocky Mountains bordering its west, with the high plains to the east, high desert lands to the south, and the Palmer Divide to the north. It is approximately 60 miles south of Denver – the Mile High City, of which it beats in elevation at 6,035 feet. It is home to the United States Olympic Committee and training center. Colorado Springs has a population of over a 1/2 million residents. It encompasses over 195 square miles.
The area that is now Colorado Springs, was once home to the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Ute tribes of the first inhabitants of the Americas. Once Euro-American settlers populated the area, the lands here were included in the 1803 Louisiana purchase and the 1854 Kansas Territory records. The first settlement by Euro-Americans occured in 1859 and was part of the Jefferson Territory, at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp Creeks during the Gold Rush plaguing the Pikes Peak region in the mid 1800’s. It became the capital of the Colorado Territory in 1861, but in 1862 the capital was moved to Denver. By 1871 the “Colorado Springs Company” established the towns of La Font (now known as Manitou Springs) and the Fountain Colony up and down stream of Old Colorado City (the foundation of Colorado Springs). The former “Fountain Colony” became “Colorado Springs”. At a later date, that which was “Fountain Colony” became Fountain, Colorado and that which was “Old Colorado City” became Colorado Springs. The Military camp and town of “Fort Carson” was built within the middle area between Fountain and Old Colorado City. These “annexations” occured primarily around the late 1800’s and included the creation and division of Seavey’s Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, North End, and the Broadmoor suburb that hosted the Broadmoor Casino. By 1895 there were over four Mining exchanges and over 275 mining brokers running the city.
After the mining boom gaining attention to the city, the experimental scientist Nikola Tesla created a Tesla Experimental station here on Knob Hill from 1899-1901. The Airport was established in 1919, with the Alexander Airport towards the north end of the city opening in 1925. The current Colorado Springs Municipal Airport was established in 1927.
By the 1940’s Colorado Springs became a central hub for the military, first with the establishment of Peterson Air Force Base in 1942 during World War II. By the 1950’s it was the Cold War headquarters for the ADC Air Defense Command. Peterson Air Force base was reopened in 1951 as a US Air Force Base and by the 1970’s NORAD was built within Cheyenne Mountain. The city boomed again with the construction of colleges and Universities making it a place of learning with the acquisition of “University of Colorado: Colorado Springs”, “Pikes Peak Community College”, “Colorado College”, and “Colorado Technical University”. By the late 1970’s Colorado Springs became the U.S. Olympics training Center.
The region of Colorado Springs is located in a semi-arid climate zone gaining quickly changing weather patterns and temperature zones from the chinook winds that come down off the mountains during the winter, and drastic rapid warming in the summers. It is considered to be sunny year round at an average of 243 sunny days a year. It gets approximately 38 inches of snow a year, although the snow doesn’t stick around long. The region receives roughly 16-18 inches of rainfall a year. It is also a popular location for afternoon thunderstorms, even though they don’t always produce rain. It is one of the most active places in the United States for lightning strikes nad is one of the reasons Nikola Tesla selected it as a location for his lab studying electricity.
Colorado Springs has become a backdrop for many art projects, films, and books including but not limited to Stargate, Dr. Quinn Medicine Woman, War Games, Homicide Hunter, and the Prestige. In 2013 North Korea produced a propaganda film stating Colorado Springs as one of its four main targets for a missle strike.
This page is currently being updated and developed. Please check back frequently for more sites of interest, photos, reviews, and history.
Interested in this review or story? have things to add? please comment below. Do you enjoy this article? if so, please consider buying the writer a chai, lunch, or help cover gas funds for covering these sites. Thomas Baurley is a work from home single father sharing his inspirations, treasures, findings, and travels. Tell him thank you if you like his work, Please donate. Need a new or updated review? contact him for more information.
We did a 7 night on the Carnival Splendor. Just before sailing there was an engine fire. We were told the day of our cruise that the itinerary changed and we would be offered an incentive to sail anyway. Don’t ever do that either. Learn from our mistakes.
Without the engines functioning fully, there was little power for the ship. The first time we saw the fun shops open was on the 3rd day of our cruise. My boyfriend forgot his sunglasses so we had really been looking. By that point we’d bought a new pair in Nassau. Most of the ship wasn’t open at any given time.
For the first few days, they could run the Lido buffet OR the main dining room. If you wanted to eat during dinner time you had no option but to dress up. The food was not good. Tasted like food Ihop and Dennys wouldn’t even serve. After leaving dinner hungry the first couple nights we started ordering room service.
Their free items were very limited. Things like grilled cheese and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. By the 4th day we’d tried all the paid items and most of the free ones. For $5 you get a tiny basket with 6 (burnt) fried shrimp, each smaller than my thumb, and a small hand hand full of (soggy) french fries.
Since we’d exhausted all our food options on the boat we tried to investigate the ports. It was actually (no joke) $20 for the small nachos with chicken. I’m sorry, it was $19.99. I don’t want to exaggerate. We trudged back to the ship, and decided to see if there was anything we hadn’t tried yet.
By the 5th day we just wanted to go home, and so did everyone else we talked to. At that point my bed had been set with dirty sheets, stains larger than my outstretched hand where my face would have been. Our mattresses were on a flat smooth platform. When my boyfriend or I moved to the middle of the bed they would slide to the sides. It left a 2 foot gap in the middle every morning, and we flipped the mattresses a bit trying to get out of bed.
I’ve complained several times to Carnival, included pictures and descriptions.
At Guest Services on the ship they said “something would be done.” and did nothing.
On the phone to the complaints department, they said my issues were “subjective” and they couldn’t help me.
When I sent a message to their Facebook page, they gave me a place to e-mail them.
As of 2 weeks from sending that e-mail, I’ve received no response.
Honestly, just please don’t sail with Carnival. They don’t care about their guests. I typically don’t complain about anything, one of those people to be ok with eating the wrong meal just because my waiter made a mistake. I was ok with the itinerary change. I’m not ok with how things went once I was in their custody and had no other choice.
The Historic Columbia River Highway runs along the Columbia River on the Oregon side for approximately 75 miles. It is considered one of the most scenic highways in Oregon and was the first planned scenic roadway in the United States. It begins in Troutdale and ends in The Dalles as a important safe passage being built between 1913 and 1922. Points of interest are the Bridge of the Gods and Cascade Locks. Another area of special interest is where the historic highway runs through Mosier and its preserved tunnels highlighting scenic tour days. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a National Landmark and is designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers. It was replaced for logistics, speed, safety, and accessibility with the construction of the Interstate Highway 84 during the 1930’s and 1950’s, falling to be a placade of history maintained by the state of Oregon as Historic Columbia River Highway No. 100 or Route 30 as well as the “Historic Columbia River Highway State Trail.” Is was modeled after the great scenic roads of Europe and the project initiated by Sam Hill (local lawyer and entrepreneur) with the assistance of engineer Samuel C. Lancaster. It was envisioned first as a tourist play route for road trips in the Model T absorbing the beauty of the Columbia River and its waterfalls. It blended in as Highway Route 30 when the U.S. Highway system was established in 1926. It was an essential route taking advantage of the lowest crossing of the Cascade Mountains that was carved by the Columbia River during the Cascades mountain uplift providing a safe and economic alternative to the previous dangerous rafting portages used by the Oregon Trail. Originally at this crossing was the Barlow Road in 1846 around the south side of Mount Hood, followed by the Sandy wagon road in the 1870s, and the railway. It was a very difficult highway to create dealing with numerous curves, grades, distance, rockfalls, avalanches, and drops. All the locations with elements of natural beauty and scenic wonder were set as control points along the route to be included.
One of the largest states in the Pacific Northwest, is the State of Washington located north of Oregon, south of British Columbia, and west of Idaho. It was named after the late U.S. President George Washington. The state was created from the western part of the Washington territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 during the Oregon boundary disputes and became official in 1889 as part of the Union. The capital of Washington is the city of Olympia. The state often gets confused with Washington DC, and designated as such to be called Washington State or State of Washington. It is the 18th largest state in the U.S. and boasts of 71,362 square miles with over 7 million residents. 60% of that 7 million population live within the Seattle Metropolitan area. The State of Washington relies on the economies of lumber, ship building, plane building, information technology, software design, aircrafts, missiles, food production, agriculture, chemicals, metals, and machinery. The state is abundant with poderosa pine, white pine, spruce, douglas fir, hemlock, larch, and cedar. It is also a major supplier of apples, hops, pears, red raspberries, spearmint oil, sweet cherries, apricots, asparagus, dry edible peas, grapes, lentils, peppermint oil, and potatoes. It is also a major harvester of salmon, halibut, and bottomfish.
Washington has a long indigenous history, beginning with the perplexities of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human skeletons to have been found in North America. The region that is now Washington state had many various Native American tribes residing and hunting here, notable for ornate carve canoes, masks, and totem poles. Their prodominant subsistence was on salmon fishing and/or whale hunting. In the 1770s, Euro-American settlers decimated their populations with the small pox epidemic. The first recorded European landing on its coasts was that of Spanish explorer Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775 with the Santiago, a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He boastfully claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince WIlliam Sound for Spain under the Treaty of Tordesillas, making the Pacific a “Spanish Lake” with all its shores belonging to the Spanish Empire. In 1778, Captain James Cook made sight of Cape Flattery within the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which he had not discovered. The Straight was discovered by Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle in 1787. These were later first explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, finalized by the exploits of George Vancouver in 1792. While the Spanish made claims of exclusivity during the British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790, traders and explorers from around the world infested the area. American captain Robert Gray discovered the mouth of the Columbia River naming it after his ship. Lewis and Clark made their expeditio through on October 10, 1805. The country was claimed by Great Britain via explorer David Thompson on his voyage down the Columbia while camped at the confluence of the Snake River during July 9, 1811 establishing ground for the Northwest Company’s site for a trading post. Britain and the United States shared a join occupancy of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean within their Anglo-American Convention of 181, establishing the 49th parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Spain ceded their rights north the 42nd Parallel to the United States. Negotiations had a rough history between the U.S. and England, disputes were highly contested, lasting for several decades. American settlers poured into the region pushing much of the British out naturally. Britain eventually ceded all claims to lands couth of the 49th parallel to the United States during the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. In 1836 the region was affected by groups of missionaries establishing several missions such as Marcus Whitman’s Waiilatpu settlement in southeastern Washington state near Walla Walla that helped the Oregon Trail for thousands of emigrants to cross over. Whitman acted as a Medicine Man for the settlers and the Native Americans, until the Native Americans fell ill to many European based diseases that Whitman couldn’t stop, and he was held personally accountable for. Tribes murdered him and 12 other settlers during the Whitman massacre of 1847 causing the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.
Washington is hoe to several active and/or dormant volcanoes which are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier is the tallest mountain in the state. The Olympic Mountains are far west in Washington on the Olympic Peninsula hosting a temperate rainforest. Most of the state possesses a marine west coast climate with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers. Eastern Washington however is relatively dry and has large areas of semi-arid steppes and arid deserts.