Hawaii, United States of America
Is one of the newest of the 50 United States of America being admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. Once independent, existing from 1810-1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American businessmen when it was annexed in 1959. It’s capital is Honolulu on the Island of O’ahu. It has an estimated population of 1,283,388 inhabitants. The state consists of a series of volcanic islands known as the Hawaiian Island chain and is still actively growing, moving in a northwesterly direction across the Pacific Ocean via plate tectonics. It spreads over 1,500 miles. It is located over 2,000 miles southwest of the North American mainland and is the southernmost state of the United States. It is not geographically located in the United States. The Eight main islands are Ni?ihau, Kaua?i, O?ahu, Moloka?i, L?na?i, Kaho?olawe, Maui, and Hawai?i. Big Island or Hawai’i is the largest of the islands. The Hawaiian Islands are physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian region of Oceania and are considered an archipelago. It hosts the tallest mountain in the world at 13,796 ft if followed from the base of the mountain from the floor of the Pacific Ocean to its height (33,500 ft). These islands were created by sea floor volcanoes erupting magma via plate tectonics upon a stationary hot spot that slowly creates new volcanoes and islands as the islands move in a northwesterly direction. Lo’ihi is the newest volcano to form. Kilauea exploded in 1790 creating the most deadliest of eruptions in U.S. history killing over 5,405 warriors and their families who were marching on Kilauea at the time. Hawaii has more endangered species and having lost a higher percentage of them than anywhere else in the United States. Hawaii is the setting for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Hawaii was populated as early as 300 BCE by Polynesian settlers potentially from the Marquesas, with later waves of migration from Raietea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first European contat was by British Explorer Captain James Cook who visited the islands in 1778. He named the islands the “Sandwich Islands” in honor of his sponsor, John Montagu, the 4th earl of Sandwich. He visited twice, and during his second visit in 1779, while attempting to abduct a Hawaiian chief, he was killed on Big Island. After his visit and the publication of books relating to his voyages, the islands gradually were bombarded by European explorers and visitors exporting trade goods and importing in diseases such as influenza, smallpox, and measles that killed 1/5th of Hawaii’s native people in the 1850’s. Many battles took place on the islands fighting for power. Christian missionaries arrived in the early 1800’s converting much of the population to Christianity. In 1887, Walter M. gibson and a group of kingdom subjects representing Hawaii’s government forced a signing of a constitution known as the “Bayonet Constitution” (signed under force) that stripped the king of administrative authority, eliminating voting rights for Asians, and set minimum income and property requirements for American, European, and native Hawaiian voters, limiting the vote to elite Americans, Europeans, and sever native Hawaiians who amassed wealth and property. In 1893 the Queen announced plans to establish a new constitution that was later overthrown by a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders seeking annexation by the United States. U.S. Government Minister John L. Stevens sent U.S. Marines to make this happen. This caused the Revolution of 1893. (In 1993 President Clinton and Congress signed a joint Apology Resolution formally apologizing for overthrowing the Hawaiian Kingdom which was the first time in American History where the U.S. apologized for overthrowing a legitimate government of a sovereign nation). From 1894-1898 Hawaii was run as a republic until the provisional Government was annexed by the Newlands Resolution in Congress. Hawaii became a territory on July 7, 1898. With the Revolution of 1954 by the original immigrant laborers who were now legal U.S. citizens, Hawaii campaigned for statehood and received it during March of 1959 with the passing of the Hawaii Admission Act. It quickly became a commercial center with a growing economy. The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated as state constitutional law specific programs to promote indigenous Hawaiian language and culture. The Iolani Palace in Honolulu is the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii and was once the residence of the Hawaiian Monarch. Some archaeologists debate that Hawaii was first inhabited in 1,000 BCE who had a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiaus. Others debate this as a myth. Oahu is the most populated island. Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to tourism and military presence. Average lifespan of Hawaiians is 79.8 years, longer than the residents of any other state. Ethnicity varies more than many other states, with 27.1% being White, (24.8% non-Hispanic whites), 2.4% Black or African American, .2% American Indians, 38.5% Asian Americans, 9% Pacific Islander Americans, 8.7% Latinos/Hispanics, and 1.4% Other. Asian culture is abundant in the Islands. Hawaii also has the highest percentage of multi-racial individuals making up 21% of its population. European ancestries in Hawaii are also diverse with 7.4% German, 5.2% Irish, 4.6% English, 4.3% Portugese, and 2.7% Italian. Hawaii is a majority-minority state in which non-Hispanic whites don’t form a majority. There are two official languages in Hawaii since the 1978 convention: English and Hawaiian. Hawaii is religiously diverse with over 28.9% Christian, 9% Buddhist, .8 % Jewish, and the remaining Other or Unaffiliated including Bahá’í Faith, Confucianism, Daoism, the Hawaiian religion, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Shintoism, Scientology, Wicca, Zoroastrianism, as well as those of other religions. Its main economy is tourism,sandalwood, whaling, sugarcane, pineapple, military, education, and coffee, etc. Its largest exports are food (coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, and sugarcane) and clothing. Hawaii has a high state tax burden primarily because education, health care, and social services are all rendered at the state level vs. municipal levels as it does in the rest of the United States. Hawaii’s health care system insures over 95% of its residents. President Barack Obama is from Hawaii.
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This page was last updated on 8/16/2015
- Baurley, Thomas 2015 Alternative America: Travel Guide to the U.S.A. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
- McGowan, Leaf 2015 Magical America. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
- Wikipedia 2015 “United States of America” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States referenced 8/16/15.
Following area aerial photos taken from the plane going over each of the islands. My best guesses as to which Islands are which (please comment and correct if wrong):