Tag Archives: cities

Colorado Springs, Colorado

Strolling downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Colorado Springs
State of Colorado, USA
formerly Old Colorado City then Fountain Colony, Colorado
Article by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie productions, written on 21 July 2017

The second largest city in the state of Colorado, following under Denver in populace, Colorado Springs often nicknamed “The Springs” is a municipal hub for government, military, education, religion, sports, and recreation. It is the heart of El Paso County and is located in Central Colorado on the eastern slopes of the Rockies, in the shadow of Cheyenne Mountain, NORAD, and Pike’s Peak. It is located along Fountain Creek as its main water source. The region of Colorado Springs is located within the high desert of the Southern Rocky Mountains bordering its west, with the high plains to the east, high desert lands to the south, and the Palmer Divide to the north. It is approximately 60 miles south of Denver – the Mile High City, of which it beats in elevation at 6,035 feet. It is home to the United States Olympic Committee and training center. Colorado Springs has a population of over a 1/2 million residents. It encompasses over 195 square miles.

The area that is now Colorado Springs, was once home to the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Ute tribes of the first inhabitants of the Americas. Once Euro-American settlers populated the area, the lands here were included in the 1803 Louisiana purchase and the 1854 Kansas Territory records. The first settlement by Euro-Americans occured in 1859 and was part of the Jefferson Territory, at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp Creeks during the Gold Rush plaguing the Pikes Peak region in the mid 1800’s. It became the capital of the Colorado Territory in 1861, but in 1862 the capital was moved to Denver. By 1871 the “Colorado Springs Company” established the towns of La Font (now known as Manitou Springs) and the Fountain Colony up and down stream of Old Colorado City (the foundation of Colorado Springs). The former “Fountain Colony” became “Colorado Springs”. At a later date, that which was “Fountain Colony” became Fountain, Colorado and that which was “Old Colorado City” became Colorado Springs. The Military camp and town of “Fort Carson” was built within the middle area between Fountain and Old Colorado City. These “annexations” occured primarily around the late 1800’s and included the creation and division of Seavey’s Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, North End, and the Broadmoor suburb that hosted the Broadmoor Casino. By 1895 there were over four Mining exchanges and over 275 mining brokers running the city.

After the mining boom gaining attention to the city, the experimental scientist Nikola Tesla created a Tesla Experimental station here on Knob Hill from 1899-1901. The Airport was established in 1919, with the Alexander Airport towards the north end of the city opening in 1925. The current Colorado Springs Municipal Airport was established in 1927.

By the 1940’s Colorado Springs became a central hub for the military, first with the establishment of Peterson Air Force Base in 1942 during World War II. By the 1950’s it was the Cold War headquarters for the ADC Air Defense Command. Peterson Air Force base was reopened in 1951 as a US Air Force Base and by the 1970’s NORAD was built within Cheyenne Mountain. The city boomed again with the construction of colleges and Universities making it a place of learning with the acquisition of “University of Colorado: Colorado Springs”, “Pikes Peak Community College”, “Colorado College”, and “Colorado Technical University”. By the late 1970’s Colorado Springs became the U.S. Olympics training Center.

The region of Colorado Springs is located in a semi-arid climate zone gaining quickly changing weather patterns and temperature zones from the chinook winds that come down off the mountains during the winter, and drastic rapid warming in the summers. It is considered to be sunny year round at an average of 243 sunny days a year. It gets approximately 38 inches of snow a year, although the snow doesn’t stick around long. The region receives roughly 16-18 inches of rainfall a year. It is also a popular location for afternoon thunderstorms, even though they don’t always produce rain. It is one of the most active places in the United States for lightning strikes nad is one of the reasons Nikola Tesla selected it as a location for his lab studying electricity.

Colorado Springs has become a backdrop for many art projects, films, and books including but not limited to Stargate, Dr. Quinn Medicine Woman, War Games, Homicide Hunter, and the Prestige. In 2013 North Korea produced a propaganda film stating Colorado Springs as one of its four main targets for a missle strike.

This page is currently being updated and developed. Please check back frequently for more sites of interest, photos, reviews, and history.

Strolling downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken July 20, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

Sights, Parks, Trails, Entertainment:

Interested in this review or story? have things to add? please comment below. Do you enjoy this article? if so, please consider buying the writer a chai, lunch, or help cover gas funds for covering these sites. Thomas Baurley is a work from home single father sharing his inspirations, treasures, findings, and travels. Tell him thank you if you like his work, Please donate. Need a new or updated review? contact him for more information.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545). Tracing the Past – Exploring Manitou Springs (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=829) . The Great Walkabout: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?page_id=114. From Colorado Springs to Australia, Europe, and back. Photos taken January 22, 2011. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2011 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. Colorado Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=31051. Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613


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Ashland, Oregon

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Ashland, Oregon

Talent, Phoenix, Jacksonville, or Medford. They hop the bus back and forth home and many have never even stepped foot in downtown ‘. What does that say about affordability or embracing the limited-income citizens of the State?

The dining experience – Lots of colorful and attractive places to dine, and the food is good at many places. However, no surprise, it is very expensive. In addition, it is more expensive to eat out here than in any other Oregon city – because Ashland feels it is above the State of Oregon and implements a food service tax, barring the no sales tax attraction of the State. Also be weary that some restaurants have seasonal menus with seasonal prices as well as menus for tourists and those for locals. Often prices just increase during tourist season ‘ so your typical $6.50 burger will become $9.50 to rape the tourist’s wallet. As a former shop owner, we had so many locals come into our establishment complaining our prices were too low and need to be increased up triple ‘ perhaps which was another reason we failed in the area.

Where does this food tax money go? Rumor has it into the political hands of the ego-centric folk that run the town supposedly for city development. Certainly not into landscaping, the arts, monuments, or say “history” that this town should depict. One of reasons Ashland possesses no historical museum (unlike most towns) is lack of funding and city support … the historical society tried, but rents and expenses were too high. The chamber of commerce is slanted to businesses willing to pay top dollar for promotions. For a town that artistically broadcasts “history” – whatever history once began here is plastered over with asphalt and overlooked like a decrepit Band-Aid. Some local historians told me that the town ignored many archaeological and historical preservation laws in building the plaza, buildings, and roads … ignoring Native American village sites. The artifacts they dug up in those excavations? Who knows where they live – certainly not in the ease of view by the public. Of course that is only hearsay and town gossip, one would have to dig deeper to know the truth. However, from my first hand experience, they do not present this history to visitors like they should.

Entertainment – The Oregon Shakespeare Festival is phenomenal, and the free concerts on the green each Wednesday is lovely. I’ve heard the Armory has a lot of great shows and gigs ‘ one of the few stages alternative entertainment can prevail. Lithia Park is a beautiful green space, but any theatrical, artistic, drumming, and other usual-activities you find in parks – is suppressed by the police. I’ve heard in the past there once were numerous drum circles ‘ banned by the city in effort to get rid of transients. In fact they have very minimal set hours that one could drum there if at all. Street performers seem to be tolerated but not encouraged. The ice skating rink is nice, quaint, and charming. The duck pond is great for the kids. But it is seasonal, drained during certain seasons. Oberon’s Tavern and the Black Sheep are the only worthy places to go evenings hosting the only outlets left for the artistic to seek refuge and company. Good times have been had many times at those establishments. It’s a shame that most of the students don’t venture downtown to liven these places up more. There really is no dance clubs to speak of and the city seems too often shut them down. Apparently in the past there were a few, but closed down through time. The art walks are pathetic and again only centered down the main street. Businesses set off the main street are lucky to get a handful wandering in all night. Everyone brags about the parades ‘ they are very crowded but simplistic and any off-zone entertainment stifled. Due to the passing of Medical and Recreational Marijuana use in the state, much to the dismay of Ashland city planners, several pot shops have opened their doors around town. (Fall 2015)

Flash mobs – essentially non-existent, though I hope this changes if someone is brave enough to take up the organizing. There is a zombie crawl, but it is a boring walk from the Library to the Plaza with not much more than that, stifled from threats of permits and concerns something could go wrong. Santa-con? Hasn’t been accomplished in this city yet from my observations (2014-2015). The parades in the city used to be phenomenal, or so I’ve heard – 4th of July and Halloween, but due to crowds and safety concerns, the city has suppressed them as best as they can get away with. The crowds do still come for the events expecting the wild party that they once had a reputation for. Ashland was once known for its wild and creative colors, most of which are being suppressed and pushed out these days. Wandering musicians and street performers – they are still there, but being pushed onwards (Fall 2015). Tarot readers? You’d think this city would be bonkers for the divinatory and gypsy arts as many portray themselves as new age, enlightened, or earth rooted in town – not quite, often ignored. There is a lot of ‘pretending’ about being ‘enlightened’ in this city. Much of it is a fa’ade. It’s hard to find a reader within the city limits. There is one psychic just north of town (2015), outside the city limits, more towards Talent. Ashland once hosted a few psychic fairs – all of which are non-existent these days. The image of light weaving, crystal bearing, new agers and hippies has gone only as a yuppie styled facade rather than an actual practice. Again, though – true spirituality and alternative religious thought is very abundant in the area’s outskirts, especially just OUTSIDE the borders of town, to the north with great groups like the Goddess Temple, Rowan tree, etc. You won’t find much in Ashland. Even the infamous Metaphysical library recently shut down its doors (2015). Most of the metaphysical or Pagan shops have also shut down and moved on (2015). Ghost tours – non-existent, though there is always rumors someone is going to start this up. We thought about starting one up, but what little haunted history the town has, is pushed under the rug. The freedom with clothing optional activities that Oregon is often known for – very suppressed in this town, again altering State Law, the city forbids nudity in public. No Naked bike rides here.

Oregon Shakespeare fest now runs from February to October, almost year round in its three theaters. This is the base of entertainment for the city. The Oregon Cabaret Theater has musicals and comedies through the year. The Ashland Independent Film Festival showing domestic and international films is hosted annually in April with over 80 films screened within 5 days. Ashland New Plays Festival holds competitions annually during its October 5 day event. The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory is located in Ashland and is the world’s only laboratory dedicated to solving crimes against wildlife, though there is no visitor center. The Ashland Public Library is a wonderful library with great kid programs, a must visit location for parents living in the city and visiting. The Science Center is also a great space for kids.

Ashland has a fair share of parks and green space. Lithia Park, the most famous, is a 93 acre park with 42 of its acreage on the National Register of Historic Places. It hosts two ponds, a Japanese garden, tennis courts, two public greens, an outdoor band shell, and hiking trails. There are fountains in the town plaza pumping out the infamous LIthia waters ‘ strongly mineral tasting for tourists to taste. The Bear Creek greenway runs from Ashland following Bear Creek 25 miles to Talent, Phoenix, Medford, and Central Point and is a great walking, hiking, and bicycling trail.

Politics – Ashland tries to advertise its alternative thoughts, clean living, and open-ness – it however is predominantly conservative, closed group, and consisting of a mayor-council government assisted by citizen committees. Its liberal politics always differ sharply with the rest of southwestern Oregon making its conservative-liberal clash and mix a strange phenomena to experience first hand. The city is run by a mayor-council government with a mayor and 6 council members serving 4 years. The current mayor, John Stromberg ends his term in 2016 and is seen as responsible for much of the downtrends of Ashland losing popularity as a tourist destination. In the past however, Ashland was known for being more liberal than the rest of Oregon and had the nickname as being the People’s Republic of Ashland and advocates to join the state of Jefferson. Many citizens in Oregon are for clean air (although Ashland air quality is low), anti-immunizations, anti-chem trails, and against brand-name commercial development. Although there seems to be a large amount of individuals claiming to eat and live healthy, the number of healthier alternative restaurants in town are minimal and there are no vegan only establishments (2015). Through a nasty monopoly grocery-chain war, Haggens was set up to fail by Albertsons/Safeway in 2015. The Health food co-op and Shop n’ Kart are the places to go.

Ashland is not very varied in diversity, according to the 2010 Census, calculating a population just over 20,000 placed Ashland as 90% white, 5% Hispanic, 1% African American, 1% Native American, 2% Asian, .3% Pacific Islander, and 4.4% Other. Ashland has a median age range of 42.9 years of age. The average Ashland income is about $41,334 and median family income is $58,409. The per capita income for the city is $28,941 with over 21% of the population below poverty.

Ashland depends on tourism and that is severely suffered these days due to the current political climate and control. Stores, restaurants, and businesses often come and go ‘ seeing a flux that is ending independent business in the village moving to larger entities and away from the mom and pop shop. Again, Ashland would not have an economy without the Oregon Shakespeare Festival that sells more than 400,000 tickets a year. The largest employer in town is the University.

Ashland has been the film set for Neil Gaiman’s ‘Coraline’ and the 2014 Reese Witherspoon movie ‘Wild’.

* Note: This article/review is a work in progress. Please check back often for new content.

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This page is in progress and updates will be frequent in the near future, please come back soon for more content and photos If you are a business or attraction that has been reviewed here and would like to add details, a re-review, or to request an update please email Technogypsie @ gmail . com (remove spaces)
This page was last updated on 8/16/2015

    References:
  • Baurley, Thomas 2015 Alternative America: Travel Guide to the U.S.A. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • McGowan, Leaf 2015 Magical America. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • Wikipedia 2015 “United States of America” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States referenced 8/16/15.

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Driving through Ashland, Oregon, USA.  Photography (c) 2015 Thomas Baurley,  Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography/.  To follow the stories and tales visit http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ and http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/. The adventures this day: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=14129
Driving through Ashland, Oregon, USA. Photography (c) 2015 Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography/. To follow the stories and tales visit http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ and http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/. The adventures this day: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=14129

More and more with the raging wildfires and expanding drought on the west coast, Ashland is living up to its urban-legend name as a home for ash and smoke.

Wildfires 8/10/15:

smoky haze over ashland Oregon area - 8/10/15: Return journey from 2nd Star back to Riverside: I-5 south.  Life in Southern California 2015 series. Photos copyright 2015 all rights reserved: Technogypsie Productions, www.technogypsie.com/photography - photos by Leaf McGowan, Tom Baurley . To follow the travel tales visit www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/ and www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ or directly: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=15485. More about Ashland: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=18533
smoky haze over ashland Oregon area – 8/10/15: Return journey from 2nd Star back to Riverside: I-5 south. Life in Southern California 2015 series. Photos copyright 2015 all rights reserved: Technogypsie Productions, www.technogypsie.com/photography – photos by Leaf McGowan, Tom Baurley . To follow the travel tales visit www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/ and www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ or directly: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=15485. More about Ashland: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=18533

smoky haze over ashland Oregon area - 8/10/15: Return journey from 2nd Star back to Riverside: I-5 south.  Life in Southern California 2015 series. Photos copyright 2015 all rights reserved: Technogypsie Productions, www.technogypsie.com/photography - photos by Leaf McGowan, Tom Baurley . To follow the travel tales visit www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/ and www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ or directly: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=15485. More about Ashland: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=18533
smoky haze over ashland Oregon area – 8/10/15: Return journey from 2nd Star back to Riverside: I-5 south. Life in Southern California 2015 series. Photos copyright 2015 all rights reserved: Technogypsie Productions, www.technogypsie.com/photography – photos by Leaf McGowan, Tom Baurley . To follow the travel tales visit www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/ and www.technogypsie.com/reviews/ or directly: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=15485. More about Ashland: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=18533
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Santa Fe, New Mexico

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Santa Fe, New Mexico

New Mexico’s fourth largest city (2012 census: 69,204 inhabitants), Santa Fe is the capital of New Mexico. It is the oldest capital city in the U.S.A. and a Spanish Center of the American Southwest known for its art, culture, architecture, and scenery. Originally named La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asis for the “Royal Town of the Holy Faith of St. Francis of Assisi”. The term “Santa Fe” means “holy faith”. The region was originally inhabited by Puebloan Indian villages dating from 1050 CE to 1150 CE as migrants from the Four Corners area, and their original Anasazi roots of Mesa Verde, Salmon, Aztec, and Chaco Canyon. The earliest known settlement began in downtown Santa Fe around 900 C.E. in the center of what is now present day Santa Fe. Clusters of homes were built around the central Plaza spreading a half a mile to the south and west called Ogapoge fed by the Santa Fe River that came through the area. The Spanish settler Don Juan de Onate began colonizing the area in 1598 CE establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico as a province of New Spain. New Mexico’s second Spanish Governor Don Pedro de Peralta founded a new city at the base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607 CE called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de san Francisco de Asis as the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi making it the capital of the province and the oldest state capital for what is now the United States. It was eventually abandoned due to Indian raids on and off through time so was never continuously occupied. Santa Fe became America’s third oldest surviving U.S. city in the 50 states founded by European colonists behind St. Augustine in 1565. The Native peoples drove the Spaniards out of the area from 1680-1692 CE during the Pueblo Revolt, until reconquerred by Don Diego de Vargas. During the Mexican War of Independence in 1810 Spanish settlement began to seed again. Once in American hands, the area was fought over by various regions of the United States, with the Republic of Texas claiming it as part of its western portions of its state when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. A military and tradition expedition set out from Austin, Texas with sights on gaining control all areas of the santa Fe Trail they called the Santa Fe Expedition, but was squashed and captured by the Mexican Army. The U.S. declared war on Mexico in 1846 CE with Santa Fe being claim as the New Mexico Territory of the United States centered in santa Fe. By 1848 CE, the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The area fell under the control of Jean Baptiste Lamy in 1851 C.E. when he became Bishop of the New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado – spreading Catholicism and making it a religious center the that path until his death in 1888 CE. Catholicism since then took a stronghold of the region being the largest faith support by the local populations. The Civil War took its toll on the area, with the Confederates pushed out by Union Troops in 1862 C.E. Once the railways came through the area, tourists and settlers set up roots in the area but was later bypassed by the rails leading to a gradual economic decline. Santa Fe took a quick lift after the arts and archaeology made the area known, especially with the School of American Research in 1907 CE, and the creation of arts, architecture, pottery, and unique artistic designs. When New Mexico became the 47th state in the U.S. (1912 CE), Santa Fe was deemed Capital of New Mexico.

Today Santa Fe is well known for its art, architecture, design, technology, culture, archaeology, and history. It has become a major tourist location as such making it a thriving cultural pilgrimage location.


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Albuquerque, New Mexico

Albuquerque, New Mexico

In the heart of New Mexico lies the state’s most populated city – Albuquerque, which straddles the Rio Grande in the shadow of Sandia Mountains. The 2012 census state over a half a million residents making it the 32nd largest city in America. Its combined region including the cities of Rio Rancho, Bernalillo, Placitas, Corrales, Los Lunas, Belen, Bosque Farms, and Albuquerque – Santa Fe – Las Vegas combined statistical area, gave it a population of 1,146,049 in 2010. Founded in 1706 C.E. as a Spanish colonial outpost called “Ranchos de Alburquerque” it rapidly grew as a thriving center of New Mexico. Starting out as a farming community with a military outpost along the Camino Real, it was the sheep-herding center of its day. Spain setup its military garrison there in 1706 CE, and after 1821, Mexico set up theirs as well. The growing village of Spanish settlements in its early days became Albuquerque named as such by the then provincial governor Don Francisco cuervo y Valdes after the Spanish town of the same name. This Spanish town was named after the Alburquerque family dating from pre-12th century Iberia. The Portugese town it was named after is within the badojoz province of Extremadura region just 15 miles from the Portugese border. However others claim it was named after the Arabic “Al-Barquq” meaning “the plum” mixed with the derivative Galician word “albaricoque” or “the apricot” as it was a fruit brought to New Mexico by Spanish settlers in 1743 C.E. The town was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern with a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, a church, and residences. This is preserved to this day being home to local culture, commerce, and history being dubbed “Old Town Albuquerque” to separate it from modern day tech-querque. Once America took occupation of New Mexico, the city became headquarters for an American military garrison and quartermaster depot from 1846 to 1867. However during the Civil War, Albuquerque was occupied by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley until Union troops pushed them out in April 1862 CE during the Battle of Albuquerque. Once the rails came to town in 1880 CE, it quickly blossomed into New town or New Albuquerque as a haven for settlers, mountain men, and merchants. A true Spanish-Mexican outpost for the Wild West, it was always a place for rising crime.

Albuquerque is famous for its cultural and scenic beauty, especially with sites like Petroglyph National Monument, the Rio Grande River, its Spanish cultural heritage, and the Sandia Mountains. Today it is home to the University of New Mexico, Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, Presbyterian Health Services, and Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute.

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Edinburgh, Scotland

Named after the Celtic British place name of “Eidyn”, “Edinburgh” is one of the major centres of the Enlightenment in history, The New “Athens of the North” serves Scotland as its second largest city and Capital. It is located in the south-east of Scotland along the east coast of the Central Belt. Both of its New and Old town districts are considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site (since 1995) due to its unique Medieval Old Town and Georgian New Town character with over 4,500 buildings listed. With a population of over 495,000 inhabitants it is also the governmental seat of the Scottish Parliament for all of Scotland. Most popular for its annual Edinburgh Festival, it is also home to numerous official and independent festivals that run through the month of August. The best known of these is the Fringe Festival, the largest performing arts festival in the world, as well as the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. Growing in popularity are also the annual Hogmanay street party and the Beltane Fire Festival – all of which attract well over a million attendees a year and is the second most visited sightseeing hotspot in the United Kingdom. [ ~ Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=4325 ]

The first known inhabitants to the area date from early stone settlements from the Bronze age that can be found along the Craiglockhart Hill, Pentland Hills, and Holyroad. Culture and populations increased during the Iron Age, which expressed La Tene Celtic and Hallstatt cultures from central Europe. When the Romans arrived in the area, it was around 100 C.E. and the first peoples they encountered were the Votadini who were a Celtic Brythonic Tribe. By 600 C.E. the Votadini had a infamous hillfort called “Din Eidyn” where Arthur’s seat is currently located. It has since vanished. As time crawled on, the area was inhabited by the Bernicia, then the Northumbria, the English, and southeastern Scots. The stronghold was captured by King Oswald of Northumbria by 638 C.E. until 950 C.E. Indulf, Constantine the II’s son took over at that point. The town evolved from this changeover, and with King Malcolm II in 1018 C.E. the fort became the early foundations of the city it is now rather than a fort. In 1124 C.E. King David I granted the area to the Church of the Holy Rood of Edinburgh and was referred to as “Edenesburch”. By the 12th century, Edinburgh spread out from atop the castle rock and volcanic craig building down below. Then came the 16th century Scottish reformation and wars of the Covenant for 100 years. 1603 King James VI of Scotland succeeded the English throne uniting the kingdoms into the “Union of the Crowns” making Scotland a sovereign kingdom of England. This led to lots of disputes between Presbyterians and Episcopolians leading to the Bishop’s Wars in 1639, and then saw Oliver Cromwell’s damages during the Third English Civil War. The city became walled to protect it from English invasions after James IV was defeated at the Battle of the Flodden. By 1707 the Acts of Union between England and Scotland came into being, merging the countries as the Kingdom of Great Britain combining the parliaments at the same time. This led to riots as well as the infamous 1745 Jacobite rising that captured Edinburgh just before they marched into England. Defeat was seen with the Battle of the Culloden near Inverness with reprisals directed at the Catholic Highlanders. Scotland recovered and was industrialized by the 19th century. 1998 C.E. the Scotland Act was established to create a devolved Scottish parliament and Scottish Executive based in Edinburgh to govern Scotland on its own.

Within the Central Lowlands of Scotland, Edinburgh is surrounded by hills created by volcanic activity and glaciation. This leads to much mythology and geological features such as Castle Rock, Calton Hill, Corstorphine Hill, Braid Hills, Blackford Hill, Arthur’s Seat, Nor Loch, and the Salisbury Crags. As the capital to Scotland, it is divided into various areas encompassing parks, a local main street, a high street, and residential areas. The boglands from the Nor Loch were converted in 1816 to the central city parks creating the historic city center between Princes street and New Town. Old Town preserves the ancient city center, the medieval plan, and reformation era buildings including the underground. New Town was the solution in the 18th century from overcrowding.

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Keflavik, Reykjavik, Iceland

Keflavik
Reykjavik, Iceland

When you fly into Reykjavik, you actually land just outside of Keflavik. “Keflavik” means “Driftwood Bay” and is a prominent town in the Reykjanes region of Southwestern Iceland. With a population of just over 8,000 it is part of a larger municipality region called Reykjanesbaer totalling over 13,000 inhabitants. The town was founded in the 16th century developed over its fishing industry by Scottish entrepreneurs. The airport was added in the 1940’s. Earlier, the airport was home to a important NATO military base and pre-jet refueling stop for trans-Atlantic air traffic. It was a popular refuel point during World War II, and during the cold war the air station was used to monitoring marine and submarine traffic from the Norwegian and Greenland seas through the Atlantic. Once the Soviet Union collapsed, the base was no longer needed, and officially closed in 2006. Keflavik was also a popular hotspot for Icelandic music, especially during the 1960’s-1970’s at which point was called “The Beatle Town”. The town was used as a theme for Tom Clancy’s novel “Red Storm Rising”.

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Lakes Entrance

Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia

In the Eastern part of the state of Victoria Australia lies a man-made channel that connects the Gippsland Lakes to the Bass Strait that is an abundant hotspot for tourism, fishing, and watersport recreation. A small village of just over 4,000 residents, “Lakes Entrance”, formerly “Cunnighame” was first inhabited in 1870 and given its current name in 1915. The area is known for its panoramic views and its fishing. It is also very popular for caravan park camping as well as its “free” camping spots in its bordering Colquhoun State Forest. Lakes Entrance served as a “entrance” for us coming from Melbourne urban wanderings to begin our trek into nature and the coast for camping and fishing. We pulled over into the harbour where we were greeted by boaters, fishers, and lots of giant pelicans.

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Melbourne, Victoria, Australia


Welcome to Melbourne sign; countryside,
Highway scene, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. April 15, 2011.

Melbourne
Victoria, Australia

Victoria’s most populated city, and Australia’s 2nd largest city, is “Melbourne” with approximately over four million inhabitants called “Melburnians”. The heart of Melbourne is the “CBD” or the “Central Business District” a.k.a. “The City Centre” which is the lifespring of the metropolitan heart. Nestled in a natural bay called “Port Phillip” at the Yarra River’s estuary, the city is not only a port location, but a place popular for its ocean view. This area was first settled 20,000 years ago by hunter-gatherers known as the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung, and Wathaurong. Many Australian Aborigines saw this area as an important meeting place to establish the Kulin nation alliance as well as a source for food and water. The first white settlers came to the area in 1803 on Sullivan Bay which was later abandoned by the European settlers as they didn’t discover the wealth of resources the area had. It was re-settled again in 1835 by Van Diemen settlers notably under John Batman, thus establishing the first official habitation of Melbourne area with a purchase of over 600,000 acres of land. This settlement arranged the “Batman’s Treaty” with the Aborigine to settle this area. New South Wales annulled this treaty giving them control of the area. By 1836, its Governor Richard Bourke declared it the administrative capital for New South Wales commissioning the first plan for the city. Melbourne was named after Bourke in 1837 honoring “William Lamb- the 2nd Viscount Melbourne”. The Post Office was opened up later that year. The city was given its status by Queen Victoria in 1847 and became the capital of Victoria in 1851. It soon after became one of the world’s largest and wealthiest cities after the Victorian gold rush. This brought in an influx of various migrants including German, Chinese, and Irish settlers; saw the development of slums and projects; temporary tent cities; and eventually the formation of Chinatown in 1851. After the Eureka Rebellion, various nationalities siezed the area turning it into a extremely cultural area. By 1901 it became the temporary seat of the government of Australia’s first federation. It had its first federal parliament later that year operating up until 1927 until the center was moved to Canberra. After World War II, Melbourne expanded substantially due to post war immigration from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. The city experimented with controversial public housing projects in the inner city to deal with its growth leading to demolition of neighborhoods and an increase in high rise towers. More financial and mining booms around 1970 established many major companies to set their headquarters in the city adding more boom to the commerce for Melbourne to be a major financial district. Melbourne saw a economic downturn from 1898-1992 which led to a collapse of local institutions, but by 1992 plans were in motion to develop public works to promote the city as a tourist location, hosting events, sports, and the arts. This plan worked as early as 1997 with great growth and today, Melbourne is most popular for its tourism, arts, entertainment, education, sport, and commerce industries. It is the home place for Australian Film and is where the world’s first feature film was produced. It is the base location for Australian television, Australian rules football, dance styles, contemporary and traditional Australian music, and is the “mixing pot” of Australia. Melbourne is also popular for its festivals including the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Film Festival, the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, and the Melbourne Fringe Festival. Melbourne is also home to the University of Melbourne, Monash University, La Trobe University, RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, and Australian Catholic University. Melbourne also has the largest tram network in the world with over 178 million passenger trips a year and over 300 routes for its buses. Melbourne has four airports. The city is also well known for its bicycle sharing system that was established in 2010.

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Albury, New South Wales, Australia

Albury
New South Wales, Australia

In the heartland of New South Wales just bordering Victoria, Australia lies the small agricultural town of Albury which serves as a major regional center for New South Wales along the Hume Highway and the Murray River. In Aborigine, this area is called “Mungabareena” or “place of plenty talk”. It is NSW’s second largest inland city next to Wagga Wagga with a whopping 53,507 inhabitants. The River Murray separates it from its Victoria twin city “Wodonga”, which if counted as one, would have a population in excess of 90,000. The area was once infamous for its orchards and vineyards bu has since been over developed by housing. Ecologically the area is known for Lake Hume that is along the Murray River that is home to the Hume (or Weir) Dam that provides 60 Megawatts of power to the state of New South Wales. Surrounded by the Murray River flats in the Great Dividing Range’s foothills, Albury sits atop 539 feet above sea level. With warm temperate seasonal climates, the summers range from warm to hot with cool to mild winters, and an experience of all four seasons throughout the year. Albury is home to agriculture, business, railways, and commerce. It is home to the Australian pizza chain known as “Eagle Boys”. It is also a stronghold for Australian rules football especially with the Ovens and Murray Football League. THe Mugabareena Reserve is located along the Murray River just south of the airport giving significant aboriginal attention and importance to the Albury area. While the area has been inhabited by Aborigine for tens of thousands of years, the first white settlers arrived in November 1824 and called “Crossing Point” for its popular crossing place across the Murray River where explorer Hovell inscribed the name in a tree. These settlers built the first European buildings at the Crossing with a provisions store and small residential huts. The town was named after the Kent England village “Albury” as it shared resemblance. The settlement expanded in 1847 to two public houses, a handful of huts, police barracks, and a blacksmiths. THe main bridge was built in 1860 and the area became a customs post between the two colonies as New South Wales and Victoria. The area was habitated by a significant population of German immigrants who began harvesting grapes in the area for wine production. By the 1870’s it was home to several wineries, a butter factory, a flower mill, a cider brewery, and a soft drink manufacturer. By 1881 the railway from Sydney arrived and by 1888 Albury received its first school house. Also popular for theater performance groups it was home to the Flying Fruit Fly Circus in 1979. Albury is also greatly known for the outdoor recreation area of Lake Hume and Mitta Mitta river that is 10 kilometers upstream of the city that gives hydro-electrical power to the city.

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Isabella Plains of Canberra

Isabella Plains
* Canberra/Tuggeranong, Australian Capital Territory, Australia *

Within the district of Tuggeranong in Canberra lies the suburb known as “Isabella Plains” which was named after Thomas Brisbane’s daughter “Isabella Maria Brisbane” who lived from 1821-1849. As Thomas Brisbane became the first white explorer of the area in 1823 who later became colonial Governor of New South Wales it made sense to name this area after her. The area borders the suburbs of Monash, Richardson, Calwell, and Bonython. It has boundaries by Drakeford Drive, Isabella Drive, Johnson Drive, and Ashley Drive. It contains a small shopping center with a supermarket, hairdresser, a Chinese Restaurant, a pathology clinic, a chemist, small doctor’s surgery, a Neighbourhood House, and a takeaway shop. It also has a few schools and universities both private, public, and government operated. There is also three churches in the area.

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Canberra, ACT

Canberra, Australia Capital Territory, Australia

Canberra means “meeting place” which was derived off of the Ngunnawal/Ngabri Aborigine word “Kambera” or “Canberry”. The region was used by the Nagbri as a point of reference during their seasonal migrations to corroborees held in the local. Pre-European the region was seasonally inhabited by the Indigenous such as the Ngarigo/Ngunnawal, the Wandandian, the Walgulu, the Gandangara, and the Wiradjuri. Evidence of rock art, rock shelters, burials, lithic scatters, camps, and quarry sites litter the landscape with cultural histories of these peoples for upwards of 21,000 BP. Europeans came to the area around the early 1800’s with the first expeditions between 1820-1824. The first homesteading done by stockmen who were employed by Joshua John Moore who purchased his site in 1826 calling his ranch “Canberry”. The Campbell family of “Duntroon” moved to the area sponsoring settlements of families to work their land including the “Weetangera” Southwells. The Murrays and the Gibbes were other big popular family names moving to the area. Disputes of where to place the national capital between Melbourne and Sydney eventually rested with a compromise for Canberra to be the location. This location was built in New South Wales. The region was eventually broken out to be its own Territory as the “Australian Capital Territory” to represent the Federal Government. In 1927 the Federal legislature moved to the area and setup the Provisional Parliament House. From 1920-1957, the city was expanded by the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, the Federal Capital Commission, and the National Capital Planning and Development Commitee which without Griffin’s presence led to what inefficiencies that Canberra now has. Due to this, by end of war time, Canberra was accused of being a ugly collection of buildings within a disorganized village or as “several suburbs in search of a city”. This eventually changed with later developments and the city was finally awarded for its layout especially with the construction of its monuments, sculptures, and University. Australia’s 8th largest city and its largest inland city, with a population of over 323,056 people, Canberra is located at the northern end of the ACT, 2 1/2 hours southwest of Sydney, and 8 hours northeast of Melbourne. It is the Capital of Australia and the ACT. Formed as a compromise between rivaling Melbourne and Sydney it was also one of Australia’s most “planned” cities. Designed by the World Famous Chicago architects Walter Burley Griffin with Marion Mahony Griffin in 1913 to be a entirely “planned” city featuring geometric motifs such as hexagons, circles, triangles, and axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks as its basic layout that was influenced by the garden city movement with the incorporation of significant areas of natural vegetation. They assigned spiritual values to the landmarks such as Mount Ainslie, Red Hill, and Black Mountain based on the flowers found on them. This is one of the reasons Canberra is called the “Bush Capital”. Canberra didn’t fully grow through its history as impacts from the Great Depression, the World Wars, and planning disputes but saw a major growth spurt after those events. Canberra is the seat of Australia’s Government where most of the governmental houses, buildings, and offices are located. It is home to the Parliament House as well as the High Court. Culturally it is home to the Australian National Museum, Australian Institute of Sports, the National Gallery, the National Library, the Australian War Memorial, and the Australian National University. Urban Canberra is organized into areas of group centers, local suburbs, town centers, districts, industrial areas, and villages. Canberra has seven residential areas known as Canberra Central, Tuggeranong, Woden Valley, Molonglo Valley, Belconnen, Weston Creek, and Gungahlin. A good portion of Canberra’s working class consists of public servants with the Government being the chief employer for the city causing a lower unemployment rate and average higher income than the national average. Typical crimes plaguing the area are motor vehicle theft and unlawful entry with intent. The Aboriginal Tent Embassy was established on the Parliament House grounds in 1972 to draw attention to indigenous rights and land issues. It has continuously been occupied since 1992. Canberra is a sister-city with Nara, Japan and Beijing, China involving numersou exchange activities. Canberra sees relatively dry warm to hot summers and cold winters. Sites of Interest besides the National Gallery, Library, Museum, University, and Government buildings are the Lake Burley Griffin with its Capain James Cook Memorial, the National Carillon, the Black Mountain Tower, the Australian National Botanical Gardens, the National Zoo, the Aquarium, the National Dinosaur Museum, and Questacon – the National Science and Technology Center. Every book published in Australia is required to have a copy in the National Library here. Numerous bars and nightclubs with live entertainment populate the night life with numerous festivals, community theater, and a cinema found in each of the town centers.

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ACT: Australian Capital Territory

Australian Capital Territory, Australia

In the heartland of Australia, lies the Commonwealth of Australia within its smallest self-governing internal territory known as the “ACT” or “Australian Capital Territory” that is knicknamed the “Bush Capital” hosting a population of approximately 333,667 inhabitants. The ACT is similar in function and organization to the United State’s “District of Columbia”. The ACT is surrounded completely within New South Wales. It was created as a “National Territory” during the 19th century’s Federation conventions so that in 1901 land would be ceded freely from New South Wales to create the new Federal Government in completion by 1911. By 1913 Canberra was named the National Capital. The ACT is bounded by Naas Creek to the South, Cotter River watershed to the west, Molonglo River to the Northeast, and the Goulburn-Cooma railway to the East. The confines of the land consists mainly of countryside and agriculture as well as some National Park with its mountains and forests. There is a small area on the Beecroft Peninsula that grants the ACT a tiny coastline strip around the northern headland of Jervis Bay. Besides Canberra, the ACT has Naas, Uriarra, Tharwa, Hall, and Williamsdale. The internal self governing territory is not independent like the rest of the Australian states. Canberra hosts a eleced 17 member Legislative Assembly representing the ACT and the other states that enacts the laws even though it can be over-ruled by the Australian Governor-General. The ACT unlike the other territories does not have an administrator but rather the Governor General for the Territory. Its Federal Parliament is represented by four Federal members – two of which are of the House of Representatives, then the Division of Fraser and the Division of Canberra. The ACT operates departments/divisions of “Health”, “Planning and Land Authority”, “the Chief Minister’s Department”, Department of Disability, Housing, and Community Services; Department of Education and Training; Department of Justice and Commmunity Safety; the Department of Territory and Municipal Services”, and the Department of Treasury. The ACT is also one of Australia’s areas that experiences all four of the seasons with hot dry summers and cold winters. Canberra is also home to the 1840’s discovery of trilobites and brachiopods that once were the oldest fossils found in Australia and its oldest rocks dating to over 480 million years old. Surrounding the capital city of Canberra are three peaks – the Black Mountain, Red Hill, and Mount Ainslie which are held to have different spiritual values.

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Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Brisbane
Queensland, Australia

* http://www.brisbane-australia.com/ *

Brisbane is a tourist and resort capital of Australia, being central to entertainment, attractions, theme parks, beaches, and tourism. It is one of Australia’s heartbeats of fine dining, sightseeing, holiday, and the cosmopolitan experience. It is also a threshhold to business and industry for Australia. With a population of over 2 million, Brisbane attracts people from all walks of life – from the young party-goer, to the wanderlust tourist, to the conference-goer, and the elite business-person, Brisbane has a little bit of something for every visitor. Brisbane is the capital of Queensland as well as the state’s most populated city. It is the third largest city in Australia. Nestled in the bend of the Brisbane River, 23 kilometers from the mouth of the river as it meets Moreton Bay. Surrounded by the River’s floodplains between the Bay and the Great Dividing Range. The city is very hilly with partial elevations by spurs of the Herbert Taylor Range including the summit of Mount Coot-tha, Enoggera Hill, Mount Gravatt, Toohey Mountain, Mount Petrie, Highgate Hill, Mount Ommaney, Stephens Mountain, and Whites Hill.

The River and the City is named after the Governor of New South Wales – “Sir Thomas Brisbane” who presided from 1821 through 1825. The area was first inhabited by the Turrbal and Jagera people who originally migrated to the area through the Torres Strait having called the area first the “Mian-jin” or “place shaped as a spike”. The First “White” exploration, was done by “Matthew Flinders” on July 17, 1799 when he landed at “Woody Point” to which he called “Red Cliff Point” based on the “red colored cliffs” that are visible from the Bay. As the area was settled, Sir Thomas Brisbane the Governor of NSW ordered that a new northern penal settlement to be established which became Queensland’s first settlement at Redcliff under command of Lieutenant Henry Miller, 14 soldiers with wives and children, and 29 convicts. Around 1825 it became abandoned and was relocated to the North Quay in 1825. The original site was called “Edenglassie” then named “Brisbane”. He also instructed for “John Oxley” to conduct a further exploration of Moreton Bay. With Oxley and his expedition exploring deeper down the Brisbane River, they reached Goodna, which is 20 kilometers upstream from the current location of Brisbane’s financial district. By 1838, non-convict European settlement occured here. By 1842 numerous free settlers came into the area and the current location of Brisbane was named the capital of Queensland by 1859. By 1930 Brisbane’s City Hall was completed, the “Shrine of Remembrance” was constructed. During World War II, the Allied Campaign under General Douglas MacArthur setup their headquarters there until they were moved to Hollandia by 1944 with over a million US troops passing through Australia during the war. In 1974 the Brisbane Flood temporarily disabled the city even though it was at this time that Brisbane was seeing its greatest growth spurts as it became a global destination of interstate migration. By 2009, Brisbane was voted the 16th “most livable city in the world”. In 2011, Brisbane was also affected by another major flood even though it was not as high as the 1974 flood but causing just as extensive damage and disruption. Brisbane is in the “Tropical Cyclone risk zone” as it has been the location for several cyclones. Brisbane’s industry is tourism, petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking, technology, science, and the QR railway. Brisbane is also home to numerous schools and universities such as the University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, Australian Catholic University, and the Griffith University. Brisbane is a thriving music mecca with live entertainment including popular and classical music as well as numerous choirs. Art has captivated Brisbane as modern art is abundant throughout the city especially in the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art. Brisbane is also a mecca for recreation with over 27 km of bicycle pathways, swimming, fishing, boating, rock climbing, and sports.

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Los Angeles, California

Los Angeles, California
* www.lacity.org *

The Infamous “City of Lost Angels” a.k.a. “LA” or Spanish for “The City of Angels” is also known as the “Entertainment Capital of the World”. Los Angeles was first settled in September of 1781, later incorporated as a city in April of 1850. The City is a landmass that encompasses of 498 square miles with an urban mass of over 1,668 square miles and sits roughly 233 feet above sea level. Los Angeles, according to the 2009 census, has a 3,833,995 population with an urban population of over 14 million making it the largest city in California and the second largest city in the United States next to New York City and the 12th most populated metropolitan area in the world. It is the third richest city and fifth most powerful and influential of cities in the world. It is a world center for international trade, entertainment, movies, media, fashion, science, culture, business, technology, and education. It is the world’s leader in the creation of video games, motion pictures, television, and recorded music. L.A. has a Mediterranean-like climate with roughly only 35 days of precipitation a year. Due to its geography, vehicles, industry, and airport it is overriden by smog and air pollution being a very bad locale to those with respiratory illnesses. The city is divided into 80 districts and neighborhoods some of the well known areas are Silver Lake, Echoe Park, Los Feliz, Venice Beach, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood, Bel Air, Hollywood Hills, Brentwood, Pacific Palisades, and the Downtown Financial District. Its most famous landmarks are Griffith Observatory, Universal Studies, Walt Disney Concer Hall, Grauman’s Chinese Theater, Hollywood sign, Hollywood Blvd, Capital Records, Hollywood Bowl, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, Olvera Street, Museum of Art, the Coliseum, etc. L.A. and Hollywood are also home to over 841 museums and art galleries, the most notorious being the L.A. County Museum of Art, the Getty Center, and the Museum of Contemporary Art.

Originally inhabited by the Tongva and Chumash tribes thousands of years ago, called by them as the “valley of smoke” for it collected smog from their campfires. it was first visited by Europeans in 1542 by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo who claimed the area for Spain. Europeans didn’t really stay in the area until the Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi came to the area in 1769 who had dreams for the area to become a large settlement. A friar named Junipero Serra built the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel near Whittier Narrows here in 1771. By 1777 a pueblo was established here. The area was founded by the Spanish governor Felipe de Neve on September 4, 1781 by a group of 44 settlers who called themselves the “Los Pobladores”. With a population of 650, the area was claimed for Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. By 1848 it was purchased with California through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo as part of the United States after the Mexican American War. By 1850 it achieved statehood. The Railroads came through the area as the “Southern Pacific Line” in 1876. By 1892 the area had a surplus of oil discovered bringing in early oil industry, so much, that the area produced 1/4 of the world’s oil by 1923. Overpopulation of the natural resources taxed the local water supply and by 1913 the Los Angeles Aqueduc had to be built. By the 1920’s the film industry settled, quadrupling the population to over a million by 1932. By 1969 the area became one of the Internet’s birthplaces with the first ARPANET setup here at the University of California. Mixed cultures populated the area, especially Spanish, Mexican, African American, Jewish, Oriental, and Native American populations. By the 20th century, the area was infected by drug trade, police corruption, gang warfare, murders, racial tensions, and crime. By 1994 the area was devastated by the 6.7 Northridge earthquake.

Please Come Back Soon. This page is being created.

This page is in progress and updates will be frequent in the near future, please come back soon for more content and photos If you are a business or attraction that has been reviewed here and would like to add details, a re-review, or to request an update please email Technogypsie @ gmail . com (remove spaces)
This page was last updated on 8/16/2015

    References:

  • Baurley, Thomas 2015 Alternative America: Travel Guide to the U.S.A. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • McGowan, Leaf 2015 Magical America. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • Wikipedia 2015 “United States of America” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States referenced 8/16/15.

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Vancouver, British Columbia

Vancouver, British Columbia

Vancouver

Vancouver, British Columbia:
Home to the X-files and many other supernatural thrillers and television shows such as Dark Angel, The Outer Limits, The New Addams Family, and Stargate … Vancouver is a multimedia and digital entertainment hot spot in North America. Many digital producers, special effects, sick and twisted animationists, foreign film festival highlights, and top movies are produced and Created in Vancouver. Rated the 16th most beautiful city in the world, Vancouver has just about everything for anyone. Street coined “the Amsterdam of North America” or the “San Francisco of Canada”, Vancouver has a miriad of interests for the tourist. A unique nightlife awaits the night owl. Tons of plays and theatrical performances, music fests, concerts, and other cultural festivities. Home to the World’s Fair in 1986, the city has landmarks celebrating that event. In what other city can you stroll in a rainforest, swim in the ocean/lounging at the beach, rollerblade the beach walks, and go skiing in one day? 10 minutes to Grouse Mountain ski resort, 20 minutes to Cypress Mountain, and 45 minutes to Whistler/Blackcomb. Vancouver is a skiers/snowboarder’s paradise. Also known for it’s Asian culture … Vancouver is one of North America’s most famous Asian cities.

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West Wendover, Nevada

West Wendover, Nevada, USA:
* http://www.westwendovercity.com/ *

As you enter Nevada coming from Salt Lake City, Utah – the first town you see in Nevada travelling along I-80 is West Wendover making it a very popular hotspot for the loose laws of Nevada with ever-flowing alcohol 24 hours a day and gambling casinos supporting one’s habits that have been squashed when staying in conservative Utah. It is a small town with just under 5,000 inhabitants (2000 census was 4,721) and sits on the western edge of the Great Salt Lake Desert and is contiguous with Wendover, Utah that it is often confused with. It is Nevada’s only official city to observe Mountain Time Zone (though Jackpot, Nevada unofficially does) as part of its ties with Wendover, Utah. Wendover Nevada is prosperous due to the gambling while Wendover Utah is decaying in crumbles with almost no business tax base. Residents in both cities have voted to annex Wendover into Nevada but such has had a permanent halt by the politicians of Wendover Utah who disagree even though the states of Utah and Nevada as well as the Federal government endorse the idea.

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State of Nevada, USA

Nevada, United States of America:

Nevada is an atypical “Wild West” state of the U.S. that still embraces its history and outlaw appeal with legalized gambling, prostitution, lenient marriage and divorces, and rustic liberal freedoms. The term “Nevada” comes from the Spanish term meaning “snow covered” after the “snow covered mountains” a.k.a. the Sierra Nevada mountain range that is an integral part of the state. The area now known as Nevada was originally inhabited by the Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe tribes prior to European contact. Originally claimed by Spain as part of Alta California until the Mexican War of Independence placed it under Mexican control. The U.S. gained the terrority in 1848 after victory in the Mexican-American War and was eventually incorporated under the Utah Territory in 1850. The Nevada Territory separated from the Utah Territory on March 2, 1861 due to conflicts between non-Mormons and Mormons especiall after the Mountain Meadows massacre of 1857 and the Utah War following it. Nevada became the U.S.’s 36th state in 1864. Nevada was dominated by the mining industry until the late 19th century. Nevada moved from its mining industry into gambling, gaming, and labor as early as 1909 though gaming was banned until 1931 but became a focal point for Las Vegas. Nevada however is still the fourth largest gold producer in the world. 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, in 1951, came the establishment of the Nevada Test Site for the testing of nuclear weapons. The first test was a 1 kiloton of TNT bomb dropped on January 27, 1951. The last atmospheric test was done on July 17, 1962 when testing went underground until September 23, 1992. This locale is best known for the highest concentration of nuclear-detonated weapons in the United States. The Federal government owns over 80% of the state. The remainder of the state had pioneers, homesteaders, and settlers establish their homes near water sources and habitable land. As odd as it would seem since Nevada is quite libertarian with gaming, gambling, and prostitution, it is a very harsh state on non-alcohol drug use. It is the state known for having the harshest penalties for drug offenders in the country. This recently changed in 2006 when voters made it allowable to possess 1 ounce of marijuana for personal use without criminal prosecution and allow its use for medical reasons even though that is still against federal law. Alcohol runs like a river, bars can be open 24 hours a day with no last call and liquor stores, convenience marts, and grocery stores can sell alcohol 24 hours a day. Nevada did enact a smoking ban with the national “Clean Indoor Air Acts” that spread across the U.S. and was effecive December 8, 2006 outlawing smoking in workplaces and public areas. However, smoking is still allowed in bars that do not serve food, and permitted in casinos, hotel rooms, brothels, and tobacco shops. For the last five years, Nevada has been ranked as the most dangerous state in the United States just above Louisiana with a 24% higher crime rate than the national average placing it highest for robbery and motor vehicle theft and 3rd in highest murder rate. Nevada is primarily mostly desert and semi-arid climate regions with summer temperatures as high as 125 degrees Fahrenheit and evening winter temperatures as low as negative 50 degrees. Average rainfall is roughly 7 inches though some areas of the state can achieve 40. Nevada’s capital city is Carson City and the entire state boasts about a 2.7 million population with most of it located in Las Vegas. Nevada is bordered to the west by California, to the north by Oregon and Idaho, to the South by Arizona, to the East by Utah, and the Southeast by New Mexico.

Please Come Back Soon. This page is being created.

This page is in progress and updates will be frequent in the near future, please come back soon for more content and photos If you are a business or attraction that has been reviewed here and would like to add details, a re-review, or to request an update please email Technogypsie @ gmail . com (remove spaces)
This page was last updated on 8/16/2015

    References:

  • Baurley, Thomas 2015 Alternative America: Travel Guide to the U.S.A. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • McGowan, Leaf 2015 Magical America. Technogypsie Publications, Riverside, California.
  • Wikipedia 2015 “United States of America” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States referenced 8/16/15.

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Boulder, Colorado

Boulder, Colorado
More resources on Virtualtourist.com

Boulder, Colorado is a kitchy little artsy town to the Northwest of Denver, Colorado. The areas was first settled by the Arapaho Indians who lived in a villaged near the Haystack Mountains. The area was heavily visited and occupied by the Utes, Cheyennes, Comanches, and Sioux. The first Euro-Americans to settle here came in for the Gold Rush … settling the first non-native settlement in the area on Oct 17, 1858 at Red Rocks near the entrance to Boulder Canyon. A year later, the town was organized and property became sold. Originally a supply base for gold miners, Boulder quickly grew into a stable town with restaurants, gambling, schools, and hospitals. Mount St. Gertrude Academy was the first private school to open in the area in 1892. By 1905 tourism swept over the area and became prosperous. Between 1950-1972, Boulder grew from 20,000 inhabitants to 72,000. In 2005, the Best features of Boulder were listed as: “50 fabulous gay-friendly places to live” – book by Gregory A. Kompes, November 2005; “Top 10 cities for masters athletes” – GeezerJock Magazine, September 2005; “7th Best Running City” – Runner’s World Magazine, August 2005; “#6 in “The 100 Best Art Towns in America” by John Villani; “50 Best places to live – best overall city” – Men’s Journal, March 2005; “Going to Boulder” – The New York Times, May 2005; “#18 in the Top 25 Art Cities” – American Style Magazine, June 2005; and “Top 20 greenest spots in the country” – Vegetarian Times, July/August 2005. Today its is well known as a retreat, an artist’s collective, an alternative city, inspirational, relaxing, very educated, and a city rich in culture, arts, music, education, and open spaces. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.

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Eugene, Oregon

Eugene, Oregon

Eugene Oregon competes with Seattle for the title of “Emerald City”. It is also known as “Hippie Town” and “Track Town USA”. Eugene will always have a dear part of my life as “home”. While I only lived there from 1993-1994, and 2000-2001, it has been a place I often visit annually and consider to be one of my “homes”. Eugene is the 2nd largest city in the state of Oregon. It resides geographically at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers 50 miles east of the Oregon Coast. In 2008, Eugene’s population was a heaping 154,620 residents with a Eugene/Springfield metropolitan area of 345,880. Eugene is a town of political and environmental activism, arts, culture, free thinking, and creativity. It is also a college town being the home to the University of Oregon. The city is astonishing magical and well noted for its natural beauty, recreation, activism, arts, and “alternative” lifestyles. It is a mecca for joggers, runners, bicyclists, rafters, and kayakers. The City has a motto of being the “World’s Greatest City of the Arts and Outdoors”. It is called “Track Town USA” because the Nike Corporation began in Eugene. The City is named after its founder “Eugene” Franklin Skinner. Eugene Skinner erected a cabin that was used as a trading post for the area and was established as a U.S. Post Office on January 8, 1850 and was called “Skinner’s Mudhole”. Skinner founded Eugene in 1862 and ran ferry services across the Willamette River. Columbia College moved to the area and brought educational interest to the region. The College was devestated by two fires which led to its demise. A few years later, the University of Oregon was built from a public university that the town raised capital to build as the city wanted to become a “center of learning”. It did by 1872 when the University of Oregon became a state institution and opened its doors in 1876. North of town looms Skinner Butte, and to the Northeast are the Coburg Hills, with Spencer Butte south of the city, and Mount Pisgah to the southeast making it a town of hills. Amazon Creek, Willamette River, and McKenzie Rivers run through the town. Eugene resides in the Marine West Coast climate zone and hosts some Mediterranean characteristics with mild year round temperatures, with warm dry summers and mild wet winters. Spring and fall are the most moist seasons with light rain throughout the year. Snowfall is sporadic and rarely accumulates large amounts as the average seasonal amount is 5 inches with a median of 0. The hottest months are July and August with average highs of 82 degrees Fahrenheit. Only 15 days out of the year go above 90 degrees. The coolest month is December with an average medium of mid 40’s and nights just above freezing. Eugene has the highest grass pollen counts in the United States wreaoking havoc to those with allergies or asthma. Eugene stands for community inventiveness and is home for many of the community development trends that exist in North America. It was the ground zero for many activist, communal, cooperative and community projects in the 60’s and 70’s. Eugene prides itself for its small family owned natural food stores, student cooperatives, alternative schools, Grower’s Market, Saturday Market, and trend-setting non-profit projects. Eugene has always been a center for Eco-activism and the Hippie movement. It was the launching ground for many of Ken Kesey and the Merry Prankster’s ideas and viewpoints. Eugene was also center zone for many Anarchy movements and activism in the late 1990’s. The Whiteaker neighbourhood of West Eugene was a hotspot for a community of anarchists with popularity by 1999 which grew out of the treesits and forest defense camps of the 1990’s, riots, demonstrations such as “Reclaim the Streets”, involvement in Seattle’s WTO riots, and gave Eugene the reputation of being the “Anarchist Capital of the United States”. Within Eugene’s Anarchist movements is a particular branch of anarcho-primitivist movements spearheaded by John Zerzan of Green Anarchy Magazine. Arts, crafts, farming, the University of Oregon, local government, manufacture of recreational vehicles, wood products, and Sacred Heart Medical Center are the largest industries of the area. Many multi-national businesses were created in Eugene such as Hynix Semiconductor America, Shoe Goo, Nike, Taco Time, and Broderbund Software. Eugene is home to many notable festivals such as the Oregon Country Fair, The Annual Eugene Celebration, the SLUG, Art and Vineyard Festival, Lane County Fair, Asian Celebration, Eugene’s Saturday Market, Oregon Bach Festival, Oregon Festival of American Music, Annual Mushroom Festival and Plant Sale, Annual Wildflower Show, the KLCC Microbrew Festival, and Faerieworlds. Eugene was the filming location for numerous films including the 1978’s National Lampoon’s Animal House, The Blues Brothers, Getting Straight, Chicken Salad on Toast, “Drive He Said”, How to Beat the High Cost of Living, Personal Best, Without Limits, Stealing Time, Rennie’s Landing, Zerophilia, and many others.

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Cashel, Ireland

Article by Leaf McGowan, © 2010, 2014 all rights reserved originally published 11/25/2010 through Technogypsie Productions in Dublin, Ireland.

Cashel, Ireland
Infamous location for the “Rock of Cashel”, Cashel is a small village rich in history and heritage. It is home to the Hore Abbey medieval monasteries, A Georgian Cathedral, fortified town houses, 21st century Library, and many other attractions. In the heart of the city center is the Heritage Center and Tourist Office which has a small museum/series of Kiosk on Cashel’s history. “Cashel” is named after the Irish Gaelic “Caiseal” which means “ring fort” following such amazing ring forts in its surrounding landscape. “Cashel” is also Irish for “castle” which is reminiscent of the hill top that looms over the town within which is a cathedral and fort known as the Rock of Cashel which the town is most famous for. This is one of the six cathedrals of the Anglican Bishop of Cashel and Ossory and the civil parish of St. Patrick’s Rock – the historical barony of the Middle Third. Cashel is located in South Tipperary and has a population of approximately 2,936 (2006 census).

The Rock of Cashel is an isolated elevation of stratified limestone jutting abruptly out of the Golden Vale which became home to the current day ruins of the Cathedral now atop its peak. In Ancient days, this was known to be a “Sid-Druim” or “Fairy Hill” and said to be the “dun” or “castle” of the ancient Eoghnacht Chiefs of Munster. It is believed that this castle was a circular ring fort of stones which the “Book of Rights” suggest was called “Cais-il” or “tribute stone” as the Munster tribes paid tribute here. Aengus Mac Natfraich’s grandfather Corc built this fort making Cashel the capital of Munster. It became one of the most celebrated courts of the region, next to Tara and Armagh which during St. Patrick’s time claimed supremacy over all the royal duns of the province with Aengus as the King of Cashel. Aengus was baptized here by St. Patrick. By the 5th century C.E. the Eóganachta dynasty set up their capital here with many Munster kings holding reign here. In 450 CE, Saint Patrick held mass here often converting king Aengus to Catholicism. Under the same authority, the 27 kings of Aengus’ race with his brother Aillil ruled from Cashel until 897 C.E. ending with Cerm-gecan being slain in battle. Cormac MacCullinan was believed to be the Archbishop of Cashel, albeit no evidence supporting he was anything more than a regular bishop, even though he was deemed Cashel. He was famous more as being a scholar and warrior well trained in the arts and sciences of his time. He was famous for leaving Ireland a glossary of Irish names as well as his studies on the history and antiquity of Ireland. He was killed in battle near Carlow in 903 C.E. In 977 C.E. Brian Boru was crowned here as the first non-Eóghanacht king of Cashel and Munster in over 500 years. Boru fortified Cashel in 990 C.E. building up much of the fortifications you now see today are built atop. The hill was originally a castle, not a cathedral. Kings of Munster ruled here until 1100 C.E. granting the title “City of Kings” to the area. Against modern legend, there is no substantial evidence to support the claim that St. Patrick built the church here nor appointed a Bishop of Cashel, much of which probably was the works of St. Ailbe in neighboring Emly. It wasn’t until 1101 C.E. when the Rock and its surrounding city was granted to O’Dunan, the noble bishop of Munster, dedicating it to God and Saint Patrick. It was from here that Cashel grew into the religious significance upon which legends speak. Boru’s great grandson King Muircheartach Ua Briain gave the place to the bishop of Limerick setting a long history of denying access to it from the MacCarthys, the senior branch of the Eóganachta. He set up a famous school here dispersing trained priests all over the continent even as far as Germany. By 1127 C.E. Cormac III of Munster, the King of Desmond, erected the church on the Rock known as “Cormac’s Chapel” consecrating it in 1134 C.E. holding a synod there. This was upon by Domnall O’ Brien, the King of Limerick into a more spacious church in 1169 C.E. In 1172 CE Henry II of England created the Synod of Cashel to regulate Church affairs, condemn abuses, and align with Roman Rites. The seat was filled from 1504-1523 C.E. by the Geraldine known as Maurice. In 1539 C.E. Henry VIII Tudor introduced the Anglican Reformation blackmailing the traders of the Suir, robbing their ships, and holding them hostage for ransom. This same time he promised to uphold the spiritual supremacy of the king denying the power of Ireland to the Bishop of Rome. Another Geraldine, Roland, became the archbishop by Qeen Mary for the Roman Catholics for 6 years, then followed rule by the Cistercian Abbot Maurice FitzGibbon replaced by James MacCaghwell through England’s Elizabeth I starting the Anglican religion at Cashel. This caused FitzGibbon to flee to France and Spain. After seeking a pardon from the Queen, he returned to Ireland only to get arrested, imprisoned in Cork, and finding death by 1578 C.E. When MacCaghwell passed, Queen Elizabeth promoted the Franciscan and Bishop of Down Miler MacGrath to the seat occupying the see for fifty-two years until his death in 1622 CE. By 1647 CE the town was destroyed during the Irish Confederate Wars by English Parliamentarian troops killing over 1,000 Irish Catholic soldiers, clerics, and civilians.

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Today Cashel is one of Ireland’s most popular tourist sites, mainly because of The Rock. It is also home to a plethora of other sites such as the GPA Bolton Library, The Heritage Center, Tipperary crafts, the Heritage town center, the Georgian St. John’s Cathedral, city walls, Cashel folk village, Hore abbey, the former Deanery, and the archbishop’s palace.

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Visit our adventures in Cashel here: 12.07.13: Cork, Mermaid’s Well, Rock of Cashel, Wrong Keys, Loughcrew.

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Cork, Ireland

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Cork, Ireland
“The Rebel City”, “Leeside”, “A Safe harbour for Ships”* www.corkcity.ie *

Cork comes from the Irish name “corcach” which means “swamp”. It was founded in the 6th century of the Common Era as a monastic settlement by Saint Finbarr. It gained city rights in 1185. It hosts a population of over 119,000 (2006). It is Ireland’s third largest city, and the 2nd largest in the Republic of Ireland. Cork is known for its rebelliousness through the ages, starting with its support of the English Pretender Perkin Warbeck in 1491 after the War of the Roses. The ciy is built on a island atop the river Lee which is created by the division into two channels at the western end of the City. Cork Harbour is one of the world’s largest natural harbours making it also one of Ireland’s largest seaports. The city gained urban character in the early 900’s when Viking settlers founded a trading port supporting the global Scandinavian trade network. Once as fully walled city during the Middle Ages, only a few sections and gates still stand today. City received charter by King John in 1185. 1491 Cork played a big role in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck was a pretender to the English throne had landed in the city and tried to recruit support to overthrow Henry VII of England. Because of this, the city gained reputation of being incestuous as written in 1577 described as “so encumbered with evil neighbours, Irish outlaws, hat they are fayne to watch their gates hourly … they trust not the country adjoining and only marry within the town so that the whole city is linked to each other in affinity.” The climate is the common Irish abundant rainfall and lack of temperature extremes as temperatures below 0 °C or above 30 °C are rare. Cork is known for its Glucksman Gallery at UCC with major influences in music, art, dance, theater, film, and poetry. It is also home to the RTE Vanbrugh String Quartet and many musical acts including John Spillane, The Frank And Walters, Sultans Of Ping, Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan and Sean O’Hagan of The High Llamas, short story writers Frank O’Connor and Sean O’Faoláin, opera singers Cara O’Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy, Simple Kid and the late Rory Gallagher. Contemporary writers include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy (poet), and novelist and poet William Wall are from Cork. Cork is notable for gaining cultural diversity as a high threshhold zone for immigration from Western Europe, especially Spain and France in the late 90’s and more recently from Eastern Europe such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia,and Hungary. Cork and Dublin are competitive rivals. Cork has alot of industry, most notable for Murphys Stout, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Viagra production, European headquarters of Apple, home to the Heineken Brewery, and most recently as one of AMazon.com’s European headquarters.

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Clifden, Ireland

Clifden, Ireland

The largest town in Connemara, Clifden is a thriving area in County Galway. It boasts a population of about 1,900. Because it is the largest town in the region, its often nicknamed “The Capital of Connemara”. It is located on the Owenglen River where it flows into Clifden Bay. John D’Arcy founded the town in the 19th century. He lived in Clifden Castle. Clifden is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tuam and has two churches : St. Joseph’s (Roman Catholic) and Christ Church (Church of Ireland).

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Sligo, Ireland

Sligo, Ireland
* Province Connacht * Population: (2006) ca. 17,892 * www.sligoborough.ie *

“Sligo” is the Anglicized spelling of the Irish city “Sligeach” which means “shelly place” for its abundance of shellfish and shell middens. It is a town, a borough, with its own charter and mayor. While some refer to it as a city instead of a town because it is the second largest urban area in Connacht after Galway. The town is built on and around extensive Stonge Age shell middens going back as far as the Mesolithic. Many ancient sites are in the area with some notability such as Carrowmore on he Cuil Irra peninsula (early Neolithic ca. 4000 BCE) that overlooks the town. Sligo’s first roundabout was constructed around a megalithic tomb. The town is believed to have been first established by Maurice Fitzgerland, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, with the building of the Castle of Sligo in 1245. During the Medieval Age, Sligo saw several destrucive fires taking it to the ground. By the 15th century, the town and port grew in importance. Bram Stoker wrote of numerous ghost stories in Sligo that he learned from his mother who came from Sligo, mostly based around the Abbey that Fitzgerald started in 1253. From 1847 to 1851, over 30,000 people emigrated through its port to America. Sligo received its first rail in 1862 connecting it to Enniskillen in 1881 and Limerick in 1895. Sligo also hosts an airport with Aer Arann flights to Dublin. Sligo is also a port city with smaller ships docking. Four bus routes serve the town and area through Sligo center. Historically, because of its isolation, Sligo suffered much from a lack of development, but this has improved through the years.

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Truro, Cornwall, England

Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom
In the heart of Cornwall, lies the city and civil parish of Truro. It is Cornwall’s center for administration, leisure, and retail. Truro hosts approximately 17,431+ residents unless you count its surrounding parishes then it breaches over 21,000. It is Great Britain’s most southern city. Its inhabitants call themselves Truronians. Truro became popular as a center for trade from its port, as a beacon for the mining industry, and for its cathedral, cobbled streets, open spaces, Georgian architecture, Royal Cornwall Museum, Hall for Cornwall, Courts of Justice, and the Cornwall Council. Much of Cornwall early history is unknown. Truro’s name origin is debated but believed to be from the Cornish “three rivers” even though disputed by the Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names. Earliest archaeological record show findings of a permanent settlement from Norman times. The castle was built in 12th century by Richard de Luci, Chief Justice of England. He placed the town what is now Truro in the shadow of the castle (no longer remaining). 14th century Truro became an important port because it was distanced from invaders and was prosperous for the fishing industry, tin mining, and copper mining. Truro was affected greatly by the Black Death which was followed by a trade recession reducing populations alot over the years. Trade picked up by help from the English government and during the Tudor period got back its prosperity. It was awarded self-governance in 1589 from a new charter by Elizabeth I also granted control over the port of Falmouth. 17th century Civil War – Truro troops became involved fighting for the king and a royalist mint was established in the area. With defeat in 1646, Truro lost the mint to Exeter. Falmouth was awarded its own charter and harbour creating rivalry between the two towns. 1709 saw settlement to the disputes. 18th/19th centuries saw prosperity again with mining industry flourishing – bringing in elegant Georgian and Victorian townhouses – nicknaming the area “The London of Cornwall”. Things changed with Truro’s Gothic-Revival Cathedral being constructed in 1910 granting it city status. One of Truro’s noteworthy residents, the great adventurer Richard Lander, who discovered the source of the Niger River in Africa was awarded the first gold medal from the Royal Geographical Society. Other famous residents were Humphyr Davis and Samuel Foote. Industrialization from mining, smelting its own iron works, potteries, tanneries, and the inclusion of the Great Western Railway placed Truro further on the map. 1997 saw development of the Skinner’s brewery producing cask ales and bottled beers shipped throughout Europe. Truro has an abundance of commerce attractions, shops, chain stores, specialty shops, markets, and has booming businesses. It is also quite popular for its eateries, cafes, and bistros. Truro hosts the Royal Cornwall Museum displaying Cornish history and culture with collections from archaeology, history, art, and geology. The museum also hosts King Arthur’s inscribed stone.

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St. Austell, Cornwall, UK

St. Austell, Cornwall, United Kingdom
A major town in the Cornwall region of England, St. Austell is a civil parish and town located on the south coast 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of Devon. It is Cornwall’s largest town with approximately 22,658 people (2001 census). As of this writing (2010) it is in the new parliamentary constituency of St. Austell and Newquay that was created by the Boundary Commission for England and contested this year for the first time. It is managed by the Cornwall Council. St. Austell was first referenced in John Leland’s itinerary stating “At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch”. Because of the China Clay was found in great quantity in St. Austell’s hills – the town boomed for clay mining and gave rapid growth to the town in the 19th-20th century when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced mines to close down or when it moved to clay mining. This also led to St. Austell becoming one of the ten most important commerial centers of Cornwall. The town church was originally dedicated to St. Austrol, a Breton Saint associated with St. Meven, but is now dedicated to the Holy Trinity. 1150 saw appropriation by the Priory of Tywardreath by the Cardinhams up until 1535. The town has many holy wells – the most popular being Menacuddle and Towan. Also the town hosts a Quaker burial ground at Tregongeeves outside the town on the Truro road.

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Liskeard, Cornwall, United Kingdom

Liskeard, United Kingdom
Located in Cornwall, England – Liskeard is a ancient stannary, civil parish, and market town located approximately 20 miles west of Plymouth and 14 miles west of the River Tamar and 12 miles east of Bodmin. It resides at the head of the Looe valley and hosts a population of over 8,600. Liskeard serves many of the resort areas of the southern Cornish coast as well as Bodmin Moor to the northwest. The town hosts a Norman castle that was built here after the Conquest. The area has always served a big role in agriculture. It also saw a pre-20th century boom in tin mining which became the key centre in the industry as well as for a stannary and coinage. The town is well known for a popular carnival every June.

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Plymouth, United Kingdom

Plymouth, UK

Plymouth means “mouth of the River Plym” and is a city and unitary authority on the coast of Devon, England located roughly 190 miles southwest of London. The city lies between the rivers ‘Plym’ and ‘Tamar’ where they join Plymouth Sound. Early Paleolithic man inhabited the area as bones of Homo sapiens have been found in the local caves. Early Bronze-Middle Iron Age artifacts have also been found at Mount Batten showing very early trade in the area. Plymouth has been inhabited since the Bronze Age when its first settlement was established and grew from Mount Batten. This settlement turned into a Roman trading post until its competing city Sutton surpassed it. In 1340, during the Hundred Years’ War – a French attacked burned a manor house and took prisoners, yet failed to get into Plymouth. 1403 Plymouth was burned down by Breton raiders. This led to the construction of various fortifications during the Tudor and Elizabethan eras including four round towers. 16th century saw wool becoming the major export commodity for Plymouth. The town became home for successful maritime traders including Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake who led England’s first foray into the Atlantic slave trade. Plymouth is very famous for its 1620 expedition to the New World and its establishment of the Plymouth Colony – the second English settlement in North America. From 1642-1646 the town was besieged by the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War. 1660 the monarchy was restored by King Charles II who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on Drake’s Island. 1665 saw construction of the Royal Citadel after the Restoration. From the Industrial Revolution it grew into a major shipping port handling imports and passengers from the Americas as well as constructing ships for the Royal Navy. Mid 1600’s commodities manufactured elsewhere in England became too costly to transport to Plymouth so the city lost means of processing sugar, tobacco imports, and other New World imports. 1690 It opened its first dockyard, the HMNB Devonport, and more docks built in 1727, 1762, 1793. By 1733 Plymouth’s population was approximately 3,000 citizens. Imports changed to grain, timber, and coal in the latter half of the 18th century. 1812 John Rennie created the mile-long Breakwater in Plymouth Sound. World War I Plymouth became the entry point for many of the troops and served as a manufacture facility for munitions. During WWII the city was integral for naval importance and this led to it being targeted by the air raids known as the Plymouth Blitz whcih destroyed its city center. Eventually this was rebuilt beginning in 1943 by plans developed from Sir Patrick Abercrombie. By 1964 over 20,000 homes were rebuilt. 1970’s Plymouth became the home of a nuclear submarine base. 1971 the Army left the city until recently where it became the home of 42 Commandos of the Royal Marines. Today Plymouth is the happy home of over 250,000 people making it the 15th largest city in England. The city is governed by the Plymouth City Council and represented nationally by 3 MPs. Its economy is still influenced by shipbuilding even though in the 1990’s it has become more service based economy. It is home to the 11th largest University in the UK – the University of Plymouth – and has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe – “The HMNB Devonport”. Plymouth is also a ferry gateway to France and Spain, as well as hosting an airport for inter-Europe flights.

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Newton Abbot, United Kingdom

Newton, Abbot

England /United Kingdom


‘Newton Abbot’, population estimated at 23,580 is a market town and civil parish on the River Teign in the Teignbridge District of Devon. The town boasts today of a racecourse and ‘Decoy’ their country park. Through history they were notorious for their ‘Cheese and Onion Fayre’ held from the 5th-7th of November honoring St. Leonard. It also became a town infamous for its Railway locomotive works and later a major steam engine shed, then a service yard for British Railways diesel locomotives. This industry though is now closed. Earliest history in the area show Neolithic people lived here in the Berry Wood Hill Fort near Bradley Manor that encompassed a contour hill of 11 acres. Milber Down camp was built around 1st c. BCE. Roman occupation later took hold as coins and pavement have been found. Norman motte-and-bailey castle remains are on Highweek Hill which had a village grow up and around the castle. 1247-1251 the ‘New Town of the Abbots (of Torre Abbey) were granted privilege to hold weekly markets on wednesdays. 1300 CE – the settlements were merged as “Newton Abbot” (taking the low ground) and “Newton Bushel” (taking the high ground) and because of its markets – became a thriving town with good income sources for the Abbots. Over 200 years Newton Bushel ran more annual fairs than Newton Abbot which led to establishment of mills and leather/wool trade becoming a big industry in the area. Bushel was also more of a convenient place to stay for travellers coming in and out of the area – so overshadowed Newton substantially in the earlier days. Torre Abbey dissolved in 1539 and was transfered to John Gaverock. 1583 Humphrey Gilbert, a local adventurer, landed at St. John’s in Newfoundland and claimed the area as a British colony – and developed fisheries. From 1600-1850 he developed a steady trade between Newton Abbot and the cod fisheries of Newfoundland. The area was also infamous for its ball clay workings from Bovey basin. Ball clay is a purer and more refined clay than most and used for bricks, tyres, porcelain, glossy magazines, medicines and toothpaste. These were used to make pipes in 1680 adding more industry to the area at that time. In 1846 the South Devon Railway reached the town changing it from a market town to a base for the industry. Newton Abbot’s station was also instrumental to Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s Teignmouth / Newton Abbot section for experimentation with atmospheric railways. Its current station was rebuilt in 1926. Industries in the area moved their headquarters along the railway – including timber yards, brass foundries, engineering works. This caused population increase from 1600+ in 1801 to nearly 12,500+ in 1901. The town got a new look with terraced streets and attractive villas that sprang up parallel with the industry. The town was damaged during WWII air raids and a severe flood in 1979, but has since rebuilt from damages.

 

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Newton/Abbey, United Kingdom

Newton / Abbey
United Kingdom

Newton is a parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England. From 1559-1706 Newton was represented by two members of Parliament in the House of Commons as well as 1707-1800 in the Parliament of Great Britain, 1801-1832 in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and 1885-1983 by one member as a county constituency. Newton has been labelled a rotten borough from its beginnings as “barely more than a village and entirely dominated by the local landowner that is first return of members described it bluntly as ‘the borough of Sir Thomas Langton, knight, baron of Newton within his Fee of Markerfylde'”. This was abolished by 1831 when the population reached 2,139 with 285 houses and the right to vote was exercised by all freeholders of property in the borough valued at 40 shillings or more. In practice however, the townsmen of Newton never had a say in choosing their representatives – as the owners of the majority of the qualifying freeholds – exercised total control. During most of the Elizabethan Period, Langton allowed the Duchy of Lancaster to nominate many of the members which may have been a quid pro quo for Newton’s being enfranchised. Later patrons could regard its parliamentary seats as their personal property. Langton’s heir sold the manor to the Fleetwood family in 1594 which included the right of ‘the nomination, election, and appointment’ of the 2 burgesses representing the borough in Parliament which is an infamous example, and first recorded instance, of the right to elect MPs being bought and sold. Eventually passed on to the Leghs who own it to this day. With the Great Reform Act of 1832, Newton was already the most notorious of all England’s pocket boroughs, and it became one of the 56 boroughs to be disenfranchised.

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Exeter, United Kingdom



Exeter, United Kingdom

One of Devon’s historical centers, it is the ceremonial county of Devon. Residing on the River Exe (37 miles NE of Plymouth and 70 miles SW of Bristol). The name “Exeter” comes from latin ‘Exeter, Isca Dumnoniorum (‘Isca of the Dumnones’)’ that suggests Celtic origins as this important town ‘oppidum’ on the banks of the ‘Exe’ River existed before the Roman city foundations of 50 CE. There is a place in Exeter where a dry ridge of land ends in a spur overlooking the river full of fish with fertile land nearby that attracted many people here in the past as a site for habitation – so its theorized the area was settled very early. Early coins found in the area show a settlement existed here trading with Mediterranean culture as early as 250 BCE. Isca is derived from the Brythonic Celtic word for “Flowing Water” which was given to the “Exe” clearly showing the modern Welsh names for Exeter (Caer-wysg) and the River Usk (Afon Wysg) contribute to the name’s origins. Romans gave the name “Isca Dumnoniorum” to distinguish it from “Isca Augusta” or mdoern Caerleon. Alot of Roman remains are left in the city including the city wall and roman baths complex even though buried from the tourist’s eyes. Over 1,000 Roman coins have been discovered in the city leading to the belief of a heavy emphasis on trading in the city’s early history. No coins dated after 380 CE were found – so that evidentally changed through time. This was the southwestern most Roman fortified settlement in Britain. Romans left the city in early 5th c. CE and Exeter’s history vanishes for about 270 years until 680 CE when a document about St. Boniface surfaces stating he was educated at the Abbey in Exeter. Saxons came to Exeter after defeating the Britons at the ‘Battle of Peonnum’ in Somerset at 658 CE afterwhich it is presumed the Saxons and the Britons lived together in the city under their own laws. 876 CE (Exeter was called ‘Escanceaster’ at this time) was attacked and taken over by the Danes. 877 CE – Alfred the Great drove the Danes out of town until they re-sieged the city in 893 CE. 928 King Athelstan ensured the Roman defense walls of the city were completely repaired and then drove out all the Britons from the city sending them beyond the River Tamar and fixing the river as the boundary of Devonshire. 1001 the Danes were pushed out again, but plundered Exeter in 1003 CE as they were mistakenly allowed into the city by the French reeve of Emma of Normandy who had been granted the city as part of her marriage dowry to Aethelred the Unready. 1067 AD – saw a rebellion against William the Conqueror who laid siege and after 18 days accepted the city’s surrender including an oath from him not to harm the city or increase its ancient tribute. William set out to construct the Rougemont Castle to ensure the city’s compliance in the future. Saxon properties were then transferred to Norman hands, and after the 1072 CE Bishop Leofric death – Norman Osbern FitzOsbern became successor of the city. 1136 saw more siege after the three wells in the castle ran dry and the large supplies of wine in the garrison were exhausted from being used as a replacement for the non-existent water. 1213 the Weekly Medieval markets came to be hosting up to three markets per week, seven annual fairs, all of which continue to this day. 12th century its Cathedral became Anglican at the time of the 16th century Reformation. 1537 the city was made a county corporate. 1549 it successfully withstood a month-long siege by the Prayer Book rebels. Exeter was originally a parliamentary town in the English Civil War but was captured by Royalists in September of 1643. During this time it became economically powerful with a strong trade of wool because the area was ‘more fertile and better inhabited than that passed over the preceding day’ according to Count Lorenzo Magalotti when he visited and stated there were over 30,000 employed inhabitants as part of the wool and cloth industries. Celie Fiennes account of her visit stated much the same that Exeter was popular for trade and incredible quantity of merchandise holds. Business declined during the Industrial Revolution when steam power replaaced water in the 19th century and Exeter was too far from coal/iron to develop any further. Extensive canal redevelopments took place to expand Exeter’s economy. The first rail to arrive was the Bristol and Exeter Railway opened up at St. Davids on the western edge in 1844. South Devon Railway extended service to Plymouth, as well as the London and Southwestern railway coming in 1860 to create alternate routes to London. 1832 the area was struck with an epidemic of ‘pestilence cholera’. Exeter became rampaged by the German Luftwaffe in WWII with a total of 18 raids from 1940-1942 flattening most of the city center and a good portion of its historic structures. The 1950’s saw a massive rebuilding but very little attempt to preserve its ancient heritage. By the late 1900’s and early 2000’s – Exeter became a significant tourist trade city in England but is not dominated by tourism. Population in 2001 was estimated at 111,076. In May 2008 there was an attempted terrorist attack on the Giraffe cafe in Princesshay. Exeter is one of the top ten places for a successful and profitable business to be based. With good transportation links, merging St. David’s railway, Exeter Centeral railway station, M5 motorway, and Exeter International Airport – connectivity to the world is done here. The town is also notorious for backpackers.

 

 

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