Canada is the largest land-mass of a country in the Americas and extends geographically from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific ocean in the west, North to the Arctic Ocean, and is bordered to the south by the United States. It’s the world’s second largest country by total land area. The term “Canada” comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word “Kanata” meaning “village” or “Settlement”. The word was first applied to the territory in 1535 when inhabitants of present-day Quebec used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Standacona. Historically Canada was inhabited for a millennia by various groups of aboriginals, but was first invaded by Europeans in the late 15th century by both France and Britain. When France ceded with its American colonies in 1763 after the Seven Years War, many of the loyalists inhabited what is now Quebec. In 1867 with the union of 3 British North American colonies through confederation, tied together with the French, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. Until 1982, Canada had various levels of dependency on the British parliament. Canada is now a federation compromises ten provinces and three territories, labelling itself as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Canada is bi-lingual, both French as English as their official languages. Canada is extremely technologically advanced and industrialized, making a very diversified economy based on its natural resources and trade with the United States of America.