Tag Archives: Druids

Stonehenge Festival

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Stonehenge Festival, a set on Flickr.

Via Flickr:
The Summer Solstice Stonehenge Celebration at Stonehenge, Salisbury, England, UK. June 20-21, 2012.

To learn more about Stonehenge, visit my page at: www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=126

In the near future, photos and articles relating to the 2012 festival will be posted here (estimated July 2012) www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=3365

Photos by Leaf McGowan and/or Thomas Baurley. purchase and/or use permission can be obtained here: www.technogypsie.com/photography.html

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06.28.10: CSTL: WPP: Day 24 – Kissing the Blarney, The Rock of Cashel



The Blarney Castle

Early to rise in the Cork youth hostel, the adventurers began to prepare for their quest to seek out the Blarney Stone for a kiss to endow the gift of gab and luck, as well as to petition to the Blarney Witch blessings for Sir Thomas Leaf’s next life adventure. The balefire is to be lit. The delvers went down to the self-make kitchen and prepared breakfast together then off to the Blarney Castle in Blarney, Ireland. A short jaunt in their carriage, they were soon on their quest. They crawled through the caves of the dungeon, up the tower, where Sir Thomas Leaf kissed the Blarney stone, there in effect kissing millions of other people by proxy, including Princess Diana, Winston Churchill, Madonna, and a host of others. Lady Vanessa and Sir Sven of the Rhine would not kiss the stone. Rumor has it locals do nasty things to the stone. Sir Thomas Leaf begged to differ for anyone who has ever been to the Blarney Castle would know immediately upon the trecherous climb up many stories through the narrow tower, fighting off guards, jumping security fences, and risking entrapment – there is no possible way for such an urban legend to be true unless it be the guards. Sir Thomas even googled the urban legend beforehand as Lady Bonefinder strongly advised against it. Upon the mythical kiss, Sir Thomas Leaf felt endowed. The explorers then ventured down to the poison garden, usurping knowledge of potents, potions, poisons, cures, and curses. Some of the world’s most vile poisons growing in the gardens. Then Lady Vanessa and Sir Thomas ventured off into the Badger Caves, and on to the Rock Close garden to visit the Druid Circle, to prepare an offering for the Blarney Witch, to walk backwards with eyes closed up the Wishing Steps for the granting of her wish. Venturing into the Witches Kitchen and adding offering to the wishing well. A tromp through the Faerie Garden and a brief hangout in the Druids Cave. A venture past the dolmen and onwards towards the Blarney house. After meeting back up with Sir Sven of the Rhine, the adventurers got back into the carriage and headed off for Dublin. The adventurers stopped off at the Hore Abbey ruins and to visit the sacred Rock of Cashel. Took the tour and did another charm as they hugged Christ so that toothaches begone for good. A brief lunch at the pub and a drive back to Dublin to check back into the Dublin Hostel. The evening was capped with a night on the town with dinner and Irish music and lots of Cider while sharing travelling pictures.


Hanging upside down kissing the Blarney stone

Continue reading 06.28.10: CSTL: WPP: Day 24 – Kissing the Blarney, The Rock of Cashel

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The Blarney Castle

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Blarney Castle
* http://www.blarneycastle.ie * Blarney, Ireland * 021-438 5252 *

The Blarney Castle and its estate is an amazing magical playground of myths and legends, faeries, and fantastical beliefs. It is one of Ireland’s most infamous hot spots and tourist locations which is most notorious for The Blarney Stone. Even the grounds in its gardens have their attractions and history, as small caves and structures in the Rock Close garden may have neolithic habitation possibilities, and potentially the home to a mythical witch that was trapped in a rock. The Blarney Witch is said to have servitude to the Castle to grant wishes for those walking up and down the Wishing Steps backwards with their eyes closed focusing on only their wish. The Close also has a Dolmen, Fairy Circle, as well as a Druid’s cave and ceremonial circle. The Martin River that runs through the estate is believed to be possessed by ghosts of salmons leaping for ghosts of flies. Enchanted cows walk from the depths of the lake to graze on the meadows below the castle. There is also a glade where Faeries are believed to be at play. The famous castle itself was built in 1446 and has ever since become one of Ireland’s most popular tourist destinations and is located in Blarney Village, just 8 kilometers from Cork City in Southern Ireland. The castle stands at around 90 feet high boldly overlooking the castle estate, grounds, and gardens. Of course the biggest draw for tourists to the castle is the magical act of hanging upside down and kissing the Blarney Stone … the action of which will endow the kisser with the gift of gab according to the legend. It is documented that more than 300,000 visitors come to kiss the stone every year. It is recorded that Queen Elizabeth I required the Irish chiefs to agree to occupy their own lands under her title. The current castle’s builder, Cormac Teige MacCarthy, the Lord of Blarneys, built this third castle incarnation in 1446 C.E. (common era) he abided by Queen Elizabeth I’s request without actually “giving in” by promising loyalty to her and handling every royal request with subtle diplomacy, just as kissing the Blarney Stone afforded him. The Queen was said to remark on McCarthy that he was giving her “a lot of Blarney” which gave rise to the saying.

The history of the land and place stretches back over two centuries before the current castle’s construction. There are remains of prehistoric sites and Druid ceremonial remains. No one knows for sure when the Blarney Stone came to the grounds, but it was believed to have arrived sometime around 1602 C.E. It is believed that the Blarney Stone, was a magical stone that was the rock that Moses struck with his staff to create the water for the Israelites during their exodus from Egypt. Another myth states it was part of Jacob’s pillow and that the prophet Jeremiah brought it to Ireland on this very plot of land. Others say its the stone of Ezel behind which David hid when fleeing from King Saul and was brought to Ireland during the Crusades. The most popular myth was it being a portion of the Stone of Scone which was used by St. Columba as a traveling altar during his missionary quests in Scotland. Upon his death it was believed to have returned to this place in Ireland to serve as the Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny atop Tara.

The first castle to be built on the land was a wooden one manifested around 950 C.E. This was replaced by a stone construction in 1210 C.E. but was torn down because of foundation problems.

The current castle is the third structure to be built on site built by Dermot McCarthy in 1446 C.E. The castle was then occupied by Cormac McCarthy, the King of Munster, who sent 4,000 men to hold Robert the Bruce at the battle of Bannockburn – and it was there that he a legend rumors that he received half of the stone of Scone from Robert the Bruce in gratitude and was then incorporated into the Castle as the “Blarney Stone“. Queen Elizabeth the I in 1586 C.E. began confiscating land in Ireland. She wanted the Blarney Castle and its ground thereby commanding the Earl of Leicester to take the Castle as she was tired of all the Blarney, and these attempts were always defeated by Cormac’s gift of gab, distracting the take-over with a feast or party, never successfully taken. A reputed treasure of a golden plate was believed to be held within the castle. The castle was besieged during the Irish Confederate Wars. In 1646 C.E. Cromwell’s General Lord Broghill broke into the Blarney Castle’s walls by placing a large gun atop Card Hill opposite and above the lake below the current castle. When they attacked and entered the keep, they discovered the main garrison had fled through the three passages known as the Badger’s Caves – one passage led to Cork, the other to the lake, and the third to Kerry. His men were not able to retrieve the legendary treasures such as the golden plate. A later landowner drained the lake thinking it was sunk within. It was not found. The Estate was then forfeited by Donogh Mccarthy, the 4th Earl of Clancarthy and the McCarthy’s reinhabited the castle in 1661 C.E. The Property was then passed to the Hollow Sword Blade Company who eventually sold it in 1688 C.E. to Sir James St. John Jefferyes, the Governor of Cork and by the 1690’s the MacCarthy’s left the castle for good.

Near the Castle is the Georgian Gothic styled Blarney House and the Rock Close was built at the beginning of the 18th century by St. James St. John Jefferyes in 1703 C.E. The court was built by 1739 C.E. and the model estate village of Blarney in 1765 C.E. The Rock Close was landscaped around the ancient Druid remains in 1767 C.E. The house was destroyed by fire in 1820. In 1825 Sir Walter Scott came to kiss the blarney stone. Father Prout in 1837 spread word of the wonders of the Blarney Stone making it even more of an attraction amongst the nobility and curious. The Irish Famine took place from 1845 and 1852. In 1846 the Jefferyes family married into the Colthurst family. The house was rebuilt in Scottish baronial style in 1874 and is still occupied by the family lineage, though through the inter-married line of the Colthurst family. In 1883 the future President William H. Taft of the United States came to kiss the Blarney Stone. By 1887 the new railway into Blarney afforded many travelers the opportunity to kiss the stone, including boxing legend John L Sullivan, at that time the reigning heavyweight champion of the world. In 1893 during the World’s Fair in Chicago the Blarney Castle and stone was mimicked with the promoters billing that it was the real stone people were kissing, this of course was false. In 1912 Winston Churchill came to kiss the stone. In 1938 American businessmen offered the Colthurst family a million dollars to allow the stone to go on tour in the U.S. but the offer was rejected. The House’s wings were reformed in the 1980’s for a better view of the castle and grounds. In 1984 Ronald Reagan claimed to have kissed the stone.

Beneath the castle lies the Badger Cave and dungeons, in its courtyard is the infamous The Blarney Poison Garden, and within the grounds are the magical fantasy land known as The Rock Close. The castle is open daily except Christmas Day and Eve. Adults are €10.00; Child €3.50; Student/OAP €8.00; Family €23.50; and newly weds wanting pictures at the Castle are admitted free. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.

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The Rock Close:

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Rock Close

Rock Close
* Blarney Castle, Blarney, Ireland * www.blarneycastle.ie *

A mystical portal in the heart of the castle grounds of Blarney Castle is Rock Close, a place where faeries dance, Witches’ bless and answer wishes, Druids weave magic, stone monuments made, and magic is alive. The Rock Close garden is not only a site of myths and legends, but of romance and art. A dolmen greets you as you walk along the river after walking through a weaved willow tunnel, with misty meadows, moss covered rocks, and waterfalls. As you walk up the Witches Wishing steps to the Witches Kitchen and where the Witch is trapped in the stone, overlooked by the Druid Cave and by the Druid Ceremonial circle where you can walk around where the faeries play. This is one of the most fun and condensed folklore heavy sites I’ve encountered in Ireland – of course its history is a mystery in of itself. It is also a great romantic getaway from the tourist heavy section of Blarney Castle. Prehistoric dwellings adapted by 10th, 13th, and 19th century adaptations lead a lot to the imagination in this garden. In 1824, Croften Croker wrote in his “Researches in the South of Ireland” about the mysteries of this spot.

    “In this romantic spot nature and art (a combination rather uncommon in pleasure grounds) have gone hand in hand. Advantage has been taken of accidental circumstances to form tasteful and characteristic combinations; and it is really a matter of difficulty at first to determine what is primitive, and what the produce of design. The delusion is even heightened by the present total neglect. You come most unexpectedly into this little shaded nook, and stand upon a natural terrace above the river, which glides as calmly as possible beneath. Here, if you feel inclined for contemplation, a rustic couch of rock, all festooned with moss and ivy, is at your service; but if adventurous feelings urge you to explore farther, a discovery is made of an almost concealed, irregularly excavated passage through the solid rock, which is descended by a rude flight of stone steps, called the “Wishing Steps,” and you emerge sul margine d’un rio, over which depend some light and graceful trees. It is indeed a fairy scene, and I know of no place where I could sooner imagine these little elves holding their moon-light revelry. ~ Croften Croker, 1824

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It was a highly popular in the early 19th century with antiquarians. The mysteries of the Blarney Witch, the Fairies, the Druids, and the Dolmen are sure to enchant you. Blarney Castle does document that this was a place for Druidic worship. The sacrificial altar of course is hearsay, the Druid’s circle is probably, the hermit’s cave or Druid’s cave is a mystery as is the Witches’ kitchen and wishing steps. It has been documented that in the late 1700’s C.E. (Common Era) that the Rock Close was made into the garden area upon which foundations are walked upon today. Apparently the castle owners landscaped around already existing prehistoric dwellings, stone monuments, and Druid circles to make the magical faerie glen it is today.

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Rock Close: Druid’s Cave and Circle

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Druids Cave and Circle
* The Rock Close * Blarney Castle, Blarney, Ireland * http://www.blarneycastle.ie *

Right next to the Witch’s Stone and Kitchen is the Druid’s Circle and Sacrificial Altar that is believed to be a traditional Celtic stone circle that was once used by Druids who practiced on the grounds long ago. The Senior Druid Priest was reputed to have lived in the Druid’s cave. Nearby is the Faerie Glade, round the hill from the Witch’s Kitchen, underneath giant gunnera leaves and it is reputed to have lots of faeries. Across from the Faerie Glade is the Druid’s Circle.

Not much is known of these rock monuments, circles, and cave – but they are believed to be prehistoric dwellings and ritual sites. The Rock Close Dolmen is believed to be 4,000-5,000 years old. The Druid Circle and Cave are not officially dated nor is the Witches’ Kitchen. We do know that the castle owners in the early 1800’s landscaped around these features making the Rock Close as it is today with the myths and legends surrounding it. As Druidism in this era was word-of-mouth and oral traditions and no archaeological surveys, excavations, or artifacts – the guesses of the use of these remains are hypothetical and guess work. There is still little known about the ancient Druids even though the revivalistic Meso-Pagan and Neo-Pagan Druid faiths are very abundant today throughout the world. We do know the Druids were classed as “Bards”, “Ovates”, and “Druids” – all of whom shared similar functions albeit the Druids were the administrators and leaders, the Ovates the diviners and healers, and the Bards the story tellers, musicians, and keepers of the oral wisdom. Most of what we do know about the ancient Druids is from writings by Julius Caesar and the Romans, all biased from the enemy perspective. In that the Romans never really conquered or inhabitated Ireland like it did the rest of the Celtic world, there is no telling what the Irish Druids were up to outside of myths and legends found in the Mythological Cycle. There is a purported “sacrificial altar’ here that Blarney Castle labels as such, but it purely deduced from basic knowledge that Druids performed rituals that involved sacrifice in the ancient days.

The Echoe Ghost Hunters investigated this area in 2010-2011 and claimed very strong EMP’s were recorded in the area of the Witches’ Kitchen. Most of the lore in this area is centered around the Witch of Blarney.

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Memorial Tribute To A Great Scholar: Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits (R.I.P. 1949 – 2010)

A Tribute To Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits, Scholar & ArchDruid Emeritus
Rest In Peace : October 1, 1949 – August 12, 2010


Isaac @ Newgrange, Ireland
photo given to me by Isaac, photographer unknown

I fondly remember when I first met Isaac back at the Gathering of the Tribes in Atlanta Georgia in 1991. At the time, I was a Graduate Student doing his research on the Ethnography of Wicca in the Southeastern United States – having not only the academic interest but undergoing a transformation from being a devout Catholic to a Neo-Pagan Witch. Various covens I had initiated with and worked under as well as studied had not so many nice things to say about Isaac. Many of the coven leaders I had known at the time were threatened by him and said he stirred trouble for Witches. Oddly, I took that as truth so was very biased about this amazing man in 1991. Mix that with being a relatively new Wiccan and having a bit of Fundamentalist Witch attitude about me – I was actually rude to him when he walked up to my table. He humbly picked up my ‘Wiccan practitioner survey’ and asked if he could have one to fill it out … I snapped at him and said “You’re a Druid, Not A Witch.” He looked crushed and walked off. This was not the man I was forewarned about. So I had someone watch my table and I wandered off to his workshop “Introduction to Druidism 101”. What I met in that lecture was an overwhelming sensation of connectedness to the Druidic faith and admiration for this man others spoke harshly about. Turned out that “Druidism” described who I actually was, not “Wicca”. I apologized to him and quickly sought out his book “Real Magic” and information about his Druid Organization “ADF: Ar nDraiocht Fein. I found him to be an amazing kindred soul – and it was canny that our paths to Paganism and the Occult were pretty identical from Catholic upbringing with a Catholic mother and a Presbyterian father to being altar boys looking into becoming Catholic priests. We were both intrigued by the divine at a young age and discovered spellcraft independently by Voudon priestesses while visiting New Orleans. I think that was a cohesive glue that gave us a commonality. Within months I started up a proto-Grove in Tallahassee, Florida called “The Wakulla Cypress Grove”. Within a year I had a full clergy and we gained Full Grove status. Correspondence and chats with Isaac were very motivating as was learning from him, attending his multiple workshops at Starwood and Wellspring. I videotaped a number of his workshops (reminds me I need to convert them to DVD and Youtube) and learned everything I could from the Man. I was roped into becoming the Assistant Pursewarden for Regalia in ADF – carrying ADF wares with me to various festivals. But after dealing with Debt, Death, and Divorce – (Divorce from my Wife, Death of my Father, and Bankruptcy) I had to resign and moved off to the Pacific Northwest where I started another ADF Grove – the Ancient Forests Proto-Grove in Eugene, Oregon. With Isaac’s long-distance guidance we had tried to kindle it with the Outpost proto-nest of the Church of All Worlds – but it was short-lived as I had to move back to Florida to deal with my Bankruptcy. Isaac was very supportive of me with my ups and downs at the time. He also guided me through some things I was uncomfortable with when I was getting my Minerval degree with a local chapter of the O.T.O. (Ordo Templaris Orientis) I had always known I could depend on him for answers … he was my personal Merlin of sorts – a Dial a Druid – with his own 800 number at the time … 1-800-DRUIDRY. The man made me laugh, gave me a deep insight into questioning various Pagan groups and their claims of heritage, to use academic scholarship to cross-check everything in the Occult. He was truly an inspiration to me. I went from despising to loving his “Devil’s Advocate” stance with all Occult Groups. I used his shared knowledge, articles, treatises, and handouts for all of the classes I taught from “Neopaganism 101” to “Druidism 202”. While from 1991 until 1996 my involvement with him was only thru a distance when I was part of ADF, and what adored times I got to hang out with him at various festivals annually. I even left ADF when he stepped down as Arch Druid (of course drama in the organization at the time contributed to that as well).

Then in 1996 he came to Tallahassee to legally handfast in a Druid Ceremony me and my second wife Hena. I was nothing more than honored. It was an event I’ll never forget and will always hold true to my heart. A couple of years after our handfasting, Me and Hena moved to Putnam Lake, New York where we were only a short drive from Isaac. Isaac was kindling up the “Black Dirt Protogrove” and roped us into re-joining ADF and assisting him in getting it started. It was a honor and ceremonies with him were amazing. I always learned something new every time I saw him. He had suggested I write his Biography at the time, which I had always pondered, but never pursued as I was very busy at the time with the Dotcom wave in running my own Web Development firm and things were getting rocky between Me and Hena. Life shattered for me and after divorce I was on a walk-a-bout to the Pacific Northwest and Canada. I fell out of contact with him, except for the annual visits to his camp and workshops at Starwood or another random festival we were at during the same time. By 2005 I completely fell out of touch with him until we re-discovered each other on Facebook when it came out. I always regretted that. This was a man who inspired me so much through my life – I should have taken him up on his offers to come back to New York and write his Biography for him. I truly Appreciated Isaac and all that he taught me. He’s been a role model. He’s been a guiding light. Much of what I contributed to the Neo-Pagan community wherever I lived was because I saw what Isaac gave to the community and I wanted to do the same. It was also Isaac’s dedication to the Goddess Brigid that led me onto the path to her. He may have been the one to introduce me to her. I do not remember. But thankful nonetheless for that wonderful connection.

    “Isaac …. you did so much for the Neo-Pagan movement – You are loved and honored – You are an amazing man and soul. Thank you for all that you have done. You will be missed tremendously, not only by Me, but the Neo-Pagan movement in all its faiths, traditions, and sects. We would not be where we are today without you. May your Passing to the Otherworld and Summerland Be An Amazing Adventure – I Hope You Are Reading This As You Sip Mead Side-by-Side With The Gods … Thank You. “

About Isaac Bonewits:

Continue reading Memorial Tribute To A Great Scholar: Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits (R.I.P. 1949 – 2010)

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Men-At-Tol

Men-At-Tol
Near Madron and Lanyon Farm, Penwith, Cornwall, England

The infamous holey-stone known as “Men-an-tol” is located in tip of Cornwall near Madron and Lanyon Farm. This is one of England’s most highly photographed megalithic sites. The name “Men-An-Tol” means “holed stone”. Its purpose is unknown, but theorized to be a Druid ritual site, A Faerie Portal, A calendar, A gateway to the Otherworlds, A burial site, A ritual site, as well as a half a dozen other suggestions … but the truth is, its purpose still remains a mystery. There are only four stones remaining that are known parts of the monument – two upright stones with the holed stone inbetween them, and a fallen stone at the foot of the western upright. It is believed, especially from antiquarian illustrations, that through the ages, these stones have been moved around and re-arranged at various times. In the 18th century, William Borlase describes the layout as triangular. During the 19th century, JT Blight proposed that the site is the remains of a stone circle. If this was the case, the holed stone would probably be aligned along the circumference of the circle and have a special ritual significance by providing a lens through which to view other sites or features, or as some propose, a window into other worlds. Archaeological theory proposes it as a component of a burial chamber or cist dating from the Bronze Age but lacks but since no extensive excavations have been conducted. WC Borlase in 1885 discovered a single flaked flint. Holed stones are rare in Cornwall, and outside of this site – there is only the Tolvan Stone near Gweek. All the others are much smaller with holes less than 15 cm in diameter, too small for a human (adult or infant) to pass through. There is much folklore surrounding the ‘men-at-tol’ as well as traditions. The site is known for curing many ailments, especially rickets in children, by passing the sufferer through the hole. It is also utilized in rituals and rites to travel between various worlds. There is believed to be a faerie or piskie guardian who lives here that makes the miraculous cures. It is believed that changeling babies were brought here and passed through the stone in order for the mother to get the real child back. Local legends state that if at full moon a woman passes through the holed stone seven times backwards she would soon become pregnant. For centuries children with rickets were passed naked through the hole to heal them. The circular stones line up exactly with the center stone at Boscawen-Un. It has been known as a alternative cure for ‘scrofulous taint” or the “Kings Evil”. Men-At-Tol was also legendary for fixing back problems. This mere fact gave it the name “Crick stone”. Some saw the site as a protection against witchcraft and ill-wishes, while others feel it can be utilized for augury or fortune telling. With the three upright granite stones – the round stone in the middle holed out with two small standing to each side in front and behind the holey stone, form a three-dimensional “101”.

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Palmbosch’n’



Lichtenau, Germany

‘Palmbosch’n’
On Palm Sunday, April 5th, while walking through the village of Lichtenau and the city of Ansbach, we noticed spread across the threshholds to a cafe/restaurant (Lichtenau) and a dining hall of a Protestant parish courtyard (Ansbach) (both primarily Protestant communities) from afar looked like fresh cut flower greens (not the flower heads/petals) or fern branches, but a closer inspection hints more as fresh tree sapling sprouts or branches, some evergreen; making a pathway into the establishment. Google searches provided no suggestions. Communitie discussion on networks and folklore boards came up with the following: (1) The Troll: foliage representing palm fronds for “Palm Sunday” (Catholic tradition on this April 5th; possibly Byzantine roots before spread to Catholicism in 5th century); (2) The Troll: (alternate) if Willow branches: Russian Orthodox, Polish and Bavarian Roman Catholics, and various other East European peoples carry pussy willows on Palm Sunday instead of palm branches (which do not grow that far north). This custom has continued to this day among Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Polish Catholic, and Ukrainian Catholic emigrees in North America. (3) Bonefinder: Palmbosch’n’ – the Berchtesgadeners still believe in the ‘magic powers’ of the Palmbosch’n (literally ‘palm bushes’): According to the web site, there is no farm in the area that isn’t decorated each spring with so-called palm bushes that ornament the entire house from bedrooms to stables; they are not palm leaves (too hard to come by in the areas) but rather most often tree branches such as the willow branch (most measuring between 60 and 140 cm (two to five feet) in length). A ritual is conducted before they are used, as they have the uppermost twigs of the willow branch slit open with a small switch of beech or cedar inserted to bring blessings upon the house. The Palmbosch’n are also decorated with ‘Gschabertbandl’. These multicolored ribbon ornaments are made from long wood shavings that have been dyed and ironed. A final touch is given to the ‘willow palms’: two tiny slits are cut into the stem under the bark. This is said to ‘release the witches and druids’ who are believed to hibernate in there. Continue reading Palmbosch’n’

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Stonehenge, England


Stonehenge

 

Stonehenge
Near Amesbury and Salisbury, England
One of the most famous prehistoric monuments of England next to Avebury. The megalithic monument is located on the southern part of Salisbury Plain (about 8 miles – 13 kilometres – north of Salisbury). Scholars believe that the site was used as a ritual site or temple from 2800 – 1100 BCE (Neolithic Age through the Bronze Age). The monument was constructed with sarsen stones that are believed to have come from the Marlborough Downs (about 20 miles – 32 kilometres – to the north), and estimated to have been built in about 2000 BCE. The most accepted theory stated that there was needed more than 1,000 men to transport the stones. Many of the stones from the original temple are no longer there: they may have been broken up in the time of the Romans or in the Middle Ages. Continue reading Stonehenge, England

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