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Ohio, USA


Ohio, USA

The State of Ohio is central to the Midwestern states of the Great Lakes with its capital as Columbus. The state is bordered by the Ohio River in the south and the state of Kentucky, Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the East, Indiana to the West, West Virginia to the Southeast, and Michigan to the Northwest. The border with Michigan was changed due to the Toledo War to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the Maumee River’s mouth. It is the 34th largest state in the United States as per land area, the tenth most densely populated, and the seventh most populated. The state was named after the river of the same name, which came from the Seneca tribe’s word “ohi:yo'” meaning “great river” or “good river”. It has the nickname of being the “Buckeye state” and its residents “buckeyes” after the numerous buckeye trees in the state. The state was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803.

Geologically, Ohio features glaciated till plains minus the Great Black Swamp that is a extremely flat area in the Northwest. The glaciation from the east an southeast was the Allegheny Plateau, then another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau causing rugged hills and forests. The rest of Ohio is low relief. The ruggest southeast stretches as a bow-like arc towards the Ohio river from the West Virginia Panhandle. There are several major rivers running through Ohio such as the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Scioto River, and Muskingum River most of which drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean through Lake Erie and St. Lawrence River. Rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Ohio has a humid continental climate through most of the region except the extreme southern counties of the Bluegrass region that are defined as humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid throughout the state with winters ranging from cool to cold. Precipitation is moderate year-round though bouts of severe weather are not uncommon such as tornados, snowstorms, rain storms, and sleet. There have been earthquakes as well through the state.

The first inhabitants of the region were nomadic Native American tribes and peoples dating to as early as 13,000 B.C.E. The early nomads disappeared from historical record by 1,000 B.C.E. From 1,000 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E. the Adena culture dominated with semi-permanent villages with domestication of plants including sunflowers, squash, and potentially corn. The remainder was hunting and gathering moin into more settled and complex villages. The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County is one of the most superior remnants of the culture.

The Hopewell evolved from the Adena who also conducted mound-building activities creating complex, large sophisticated earthworks throughout the region. Trade became a major industry creating a large network amongst the early peoples of the region. The Hopewell vanished around 600 C.E. potentially from the rise of the Mississippian Culture Siouan-speaking people from the Plains and East Coast claim to be their ancestors living here until the 13th century C.E. It is believed that Ohio has three distinct prehistoric cultures: (1) the Fort Ancient People, (2) the Whittlesey Focus People, and (3) the Monongahela Culture. All three of these cultures disappeared by the 17th century with European contact and the diseases the Europeans brought with them.

The early inhabitants saw aggression and warfare with the Iroquois Confederation out of the area now defined as New York. The Beaver Wars of the mid-17th century saw the Iroquios claiing much of the area of Ohio for hunting and beaver-trapping. Epidemics from European contact also devastated the native populations by late 17th century. Towards the 18th century, the Algonquian peoples inhabited the region subsisting on agriculture and seasonal hunting. They became part of the larger global economy through the fur trade with Europeans and settlers.

With European contact and settlement, trade increased and Tobacco plantations were established. The Iroquoian Petun, Erie, Chonnonton, Wyandot, Mingo Seneca, and Iroquois Confederacy were the indigenous nations remaining from the 18th century onwards. Numerous massacres of the indigenous took place such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten, and Pontiac’s Rebellion school massacre until the remaining Native populations were pushed out especially with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

The French settled and colonized the area with a system of trading posts regulating the fur trade. France and Great Britain fought over the region in the French and Indian War as well as in Europe during the Seven Year’s War. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had the French cede control and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Come the American Revolution much of that changed. Control of the region went to the United States.

Ohio’s industry is based on coal mines, cargo transport, Lake Erie’s coastline (approx. 312 miles) for cargo ports, and manufacturing plants. Early industry collapses and economic despair brought great poverty to the area in the Appalachian Region – propelling the 1965 Congress Appalachian Regional Development Act addressing the concerns including over 29 counties as part of Appalachia. Ohio was devastated by the 1913 Great Dayton Flood when the Miami River watershed flooded destroying much of Dayton.


  • Akron
  • Canton
  • Center of the World
  • Cincinatti
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Cuyahoga Falls
  • Dayton
  • Elyria
  • Euclid
  • Hamilton
  • Kettering
  • Lakewood
  • Loraine
  • Mentor
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Newton Falls
  • Parma
  • Springfield
  • Toledo
  • Warren
  • Youngstown

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Exeter, United Kingdom

Exeter, United Kingdom

One of Devon’s historical centers, it is the ceremonial county of Devon. Residing on the River Exe (37 miles NE of Plymouth and 70 miles SW of Bristol). The name “Exeter” comes from latin ‘Exeter, Isca Dumnoniorum (‘Isca of the Dumnones’)’ that suggests Celtic origins as this important town ‘oppidum’ on the banks of the ‘Exe’ River existed before the Roman city foundations of 50 CE. There is a place in Exeter where a dry ridge of land ends in a spur overlooking the river full of fish with fertile land nearby that attracted many people here in the past as a site for habitation – so its theorized the area was settled very early. Early coins found in the area show a settlement existed here trading with Mediterranean culture as early as 250 BCE. Isca is derived from the Brythonic Celtic word for “Flowing Water” which was given to the “Exe” clearly showing the modern Welsh names for Exeter (Caer-wysg) and the River Usk (Afon Wysg) contribute to the name’s origins. Romans gave the name “Isca Dumnoniorum” to distinguish it from “Isca Augusta” or mdoern Caerleon. Alot of Roman remains are left in the city including the city wall and roman baths complex even though buried from the tourist’s eyes. Over 1,000 Roman coins have been discovered in the city leading to the belief of a heavy emphasis on trading in the city’s early history. No coins dated after 380 CE were found – so that evidentally changed through time. This was the southwestern most Roman fortified settlement in Britain. Romans left the city in early 5th c. CE and Exeter’s history vanishes for about 270 years until 680 CE when a document about St. Boniface surfaces stating he was educated at the Abbey in Exeter. Saxons came to Exeter after defeating the Britons at the ‘Battle of Peonnum’ in Somerset at 658 CE afterwhich it is presumed the Saxons and the Britons lived together in the city under their own laws. 876 CE (Exeter was called ‘Escanceaster’ at this time) was attacked and taken over by the Danes. 877 CE – Alfred the Great drove the Danes out of town until they re-sieged the city in 893 CE. 928 King Athelstan ensured the Roman defense walls of the city were completely repaired and then drove out all the Britons from the city sending them beyond the River Tamar and fixing the river as the boundary of Devonshire. 1001 the Danes were pushed out again, but plundered Exeter in 1003 CE as they were mistakenly allowed into the city by the French reeve of Emma of Normandy who had been granted the city as part of her marriage dowry to Aethelred the Unready. 1067 AD – saw a rebellion against William the Conqueror who laid siege and after 18 days accepted the city’s surrender including an oath from him not to harm the city or increase its ancient tribute. William set out to construct the Rougemont Castle to ensure the city’s compliance in the future. Saxon properties were then transferred to Norman hands, and after the 1072 CE Bishop Leofric death – Norman Osbern FitzOsbern became successor of the city. 1136 saw more siege after the three wells in the castle ran dry and the large supplies of wine in the garrison were exhausted from being used as a replacement for the non-existent water. 1213 the Weekly Medieval markets came to be hosting up to three markets per week, seven annual fairs, all of which continue to this day. 12th century its Cathedral became Anglican at the time of the 16th century Reformation. 1537 the city was made a county corporate. 1549 it successfully withstood a month-long siege by the Prayer Book rebels. Exeter was originally a parliamentary town in the English Civil War but was captured by Royalists in September of 1643. During this time it became economically powerful with a strong trade of wool because the area was ‘more fertile and better inhabited than that passed over the preceding day’ according to Count Lorenzo Magalotti when he visited and stated there were over 30,000 employed inhabitants as part of the wool and cloth industries. Celie Fiennes account of her visit stated much the same that Exeter was popular for trade and incredible quantity of merchandise holds. Business declined during the Industrial Revolution when steam power replaaced water in the 19th century and Exeter was too far from coal/iron to develop any further. Extensive canal redevelopments took place to expand Exeter’s economy. The first rail to arrive was the Bristol and Exeter Railway opened up at St. Davids on the western edge in 1844. South Devon Railway extended service to Plymouth, as well as the London and Southwestern railway coming in 1860 to create alternate routes to London. 1832 the area was struck with an epidemic of ‘pestilence cholera’. Exeter became rampaged by the German Luftwaffe in WWII with a total of 18 raids from 1940-1942 flattening most of the city center and a good portion of its historic structures. The 1950’s saw a massive rebuilding but very little attempt to preserve its ancient heritage. By the late 1900’s and early 2000’s – Exeter became a significant tourist trade city in England but is not dominated by tourism. Population in 2001 was estimated at 111,076. In May 2008 there was an attempted terrorist attack on the Giraffe cafe in Princesshay. Exeter is one of the top ten places for a successful and profitable business to be based. With good transportation links, merging St. David’s railway, Exeter Centeral railway station, M5 motorway, and Exeter International Airport – connectivity to the world is done here. The town is also notorious for backpackers.




Bristol, England

Bristol, England:
Bristol is a unitary authority area and ceremonial county city in Southwest England, located approximately 105 miles west of London and 24 miles east of Cardiff. In 2008, its population was estimated at 421,300 inhabitants in the city proper and an estimate 1,006,600 residents in its surrounding larger Urban zone. It is England’s 6th most populated city. It received its Royal Charter in 1155 and granted County status in 1373. Bristol borders the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire being located near the historic cities of Bath to the southeast and Gloucester to the north. It is built around the River Avon, has a short coastline on the Severn Estuary flowing into the Bristol Channel.
Bristol is also known to be one of the largest centres of culture, employment, and education in the region with prosperity linked to the sea since its early days. Bristol’s economy recently has depended on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture.

The earliest evidence of humans in the area are believed to be 60,000 years old, discovered at Shirehampton and St Annes from the Palaeolithic era. In Leigh Woods and Clifton Down have Iron Age hill forts near the city. The Roman settlement of Abona (now Sea Mills) is in the area that connected it to Bath and present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas, forts, and settlements can be found throughout the area. The town of Brycgstow (“the place at the bridge”) since 11th century under Norman rule was one of the strongest castles in southern England. By 12th century, Bristol became one of England’s most important ports handling much of England’s trade with Ireland. 1247 saw a new stone bridge built into the city, which in 1790 was replaced by the current Bristol Bridge. Bristol was extended to include neighboring suburbs, in 1373 making Bristol its own county. By this time Bristol became a center for shipbuilding and manufacture, and became the starting point for many expeditions and adventures including John Cabot’s 1497 voyage of exploration to North America. By the 14th century, Bristol became one of England’s three largest medieval towns next to London, York, and Norwich. In 1348-49 during the Black Death, Bristol only had a population of about 10-12,000 people left. The area was hit hard. The 15th century saw a boom in the fishing industry especially as Bristol Fishermen began fishing the Grand Bankes of Newfoundland and settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers up through the 17th century with colonies at Bristol’s Hope and Cuper’s Cove. 1542 the Diocese of Bristol was founded with Robert Fitzharding’s 1140 Abbey of St. Augustine becoming the Bristol Cathedral elevating it to the equivalent of city status. 1640’s English Civil War saw occupation by the Royalist military in Bristol. 17th century during the rise of England’s American colonies and rapid 18th century expansion of England’s part of the Atlantic trade in African slavery, Bristol along with Liverpool became a center for the Triangular trade where the first stage of the trade manufactured good were taken to West Africa and exchanged for Africans who were then in the second or middle passage transported across the Atlantic under brutal conditions leading into the third leg that brought plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice, and cotton back to England. 1700-1807 in the height of the slave trade, more than 2,000 slaving ships were fitted out at Bristol carrying a half a million people from Africa to the Americas for slavery. Bristol still hosts the Seven Stars public house where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information on the slave trade. 1760 the maritime commerce was disrupted with attention relocated to the ongoing wars with France through 1793 and the abolition of the slave trade in 1807 causing collapse with keeping up with newer manufacture centers in North England and the West Midlands. The construction of the new “Floating Harbour” became hindered by the high tidal Avon Gorge affecting more disruption with growth from 1804-1809 causing excessive harbour dues. 19th century saw a population boom beginning in 1801 at this time bringing numbers upwards of 66,000 inhabitants. This was affected greatly by the design of the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built ocean going steamships – the SS Great Western and the SS Great Britain, and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Bristol from the 15th-19th became a city of maritime safety. 19th century Samuel Plimsoll aka “The Sailor’s Friend” campaigned to make the seas safer, as he became aware and shocked at the overloaded cargoes had fought for a compulsory load line on ships. 1793 and 1831 saw numerous riots fighting against renewal of acts levying tolls on the Bristol Bridge and the latter after the rejection of the second Reform Bill.

World War II took its toll on Bristol during the Bristol Blitz which devastated the original central shopping area near the bridge and castle as well as the St. Nicholas Church. 1960’s rebuilding of Bristol involved large, cheap tower blocks, brutalist architecture, and massive road expansion. The 1980s saw another trend closing main roads and restoring the Georgian Queen Square and Portland Square, regeneration of the Broadmead shopping area, and demolition of the city center’s tallest post-war blocks. The Docks were moved to Avonmouth Docks and Royal Portbury Dock 7 miles downstream so that redevelopment of the old central dock area (The Floating Harbour) could be achieved. 1996’s First International Festival of Sea was held in and around the docks affirming the dockside area into a leisure and tourist center point of the city.

Bristol is well known for a tradition of local political activism and is home to many important political figures such as Edmund Burke, the women’s rights campaigner Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (18671954); Tony Benn (1950-1983), and others. 1963 saw a boycott of the city’s buses after the Bristol Omnibus Company refused to employ black drivers and conductors which influenced the creation of the UK’s Race Relations Act in 1965. The city was the scene of the first of the 1980s riots against racism, police harassment and mounting dissatisfaction with the social and economic circumstances of the area. 2005 made Bristol a Fairtrade City center. Bristol has always been an unusual city with country status because of its setup and expansion.

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The United Kingdom

England/United Kingdom

England is the premiere part of the United Kingdom. England combined with Wales, Ireland and Scotland make up the United Kingdom. Scotland is to the North of England, Wales to the West, the Irish Sea to the Northwest, the Celtic Sea to the Southwest, North Sea to the East, with English Channel separating it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic which includes over 100 smaller islands such as Scilly, Man, and Wight. England has been settled by humans of various cultures for over 35,000 years. England gets its name from the Germanic tribe – the Angles, who settled here 5th-6th century. England became unified in AD 927 and became a significant cultural and world leader since the Age of Discovery in the 15th century. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English system of Law became common base and usage for many countries around the world. Its parliamentary system of government has been adopted by many other nations. The Industrial revolution that began in 18th century England transformed English society into the world’s first industrialized nation. They also laid the foundations of experimental science. Southern and Central England primarily consists of low hills and plains, but up north and the southwest there are uplands including mountainous lake districts, the Pennines, and the Yorkshire Dales in the North; and Dartmoor and Cotswolds in the southwest. England’s capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in the Kingdom which developed as a industrial region during the 19th century. Beyond the major cities lie rural villages, meadowlands, farms, and pastures. The Kingdom of England which added on Wales in 1284 beginning as a sovereign state until May 1, 1707; when the Treaty and Acts of Union united the political powers of the Kingdom of Scotland with England to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain. By 1800 Great Britain was united with Ireland through another act of Union becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 1922 saw the Irish Free State established as a separate dominion even though the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act in 1927 reincorporated into the Kingdom six Irish counties to create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

“England” is derived from the Old English word “Englaland” meaning “Land of the Angles” who were one of the Germanic tribes that settled the area during the Early Middle Ages. “Angles” came from the “Angeln peninsula” in the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea. The first known use of the term “England” referred to the southern part of the island in 897 and the modern spelling was first seen in use by 1538. An alternative name for England is “Albion” which refers to the entire island of Great Britain. This was first used by Aistotelian Corpus in the 4th century BC De Mundo: “Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne”. This term either derives from Latin “albus” meaning “white”, refering to the white cliffs of Dover which is often the first view of Britain from the European Continent. Alternatively could be from an ancient merchant’s handbook “Massaliote Periplus”, which mentions an “island of the Albiones”. The Welsh Lloegr on Arthurian Legend calls England “Loegria”.

The most important rivers in England, because of their ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle, are the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne. As an Island, the tides raise the level of water in the estuaries of these rivers that enable ships to enter the ports. The Severn is the longest river in England (354 kilometres/220 mi) which empties into the Bristol Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore tidal waves that can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height. The oldest range of mountains in the country is the Pennines, comprised of mostly sandstone, limestone, and coal; ranges 400 kilometres (250 miles) long, and is called the “backbone of England” which originated from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago, peaking at Cross Fell in Cumbria. Karst landscapes in calcite areas are found in Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas indented by fertile valleys of the region’s rivers containing three national parks – the Yorkshire Dales, Northumberland, and the Peak District. The highest point in England is Scafell Pike in Cumbria at 978 metres (3,209 ft). English Lowlands are to the south of the Pennines, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs meeting at the sea where they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. England’s climate is a temperate maritime climate hosting mild temperatures not much lower than 0 C (32 F) in winter and not much higher than 32 C (90 F) in summer. Damp weather is predominant though subject to change at any time. Coldest months are January and February, with July normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather with least rainfall are May, June, September and October. The climate here is influenced by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and warming of the waters around the Gulf Stream.

The first proto-human bones in England date to 700,000 B.P. This was of “Homo Erectus” found in what is now called “Norfolk and Suffolk”. “Homo Sapien Sapien” arrived in the area about 35,000 B.P. but during the Devensian glaciation, apparently fled from Britain to the mountains of southern Europe when only large mammals such as mammoths, bison, and wooly rhinoceros remained in the area. 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area, suggesting they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula when the sea level was lower and Britain was connected by land to both Ireland and Eurasias. 9,000 years ago when the sea rose, it separated Britain from Ireland and Eurasia a half a century later. Around 2500 B.C.E. what is known as the “Beaker” cultre arrived where constructed food vessels were found made of clay and copper during which time the major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. With the heating of tin and copper, the Beaker culture people were able to make bronze and later iron from the iron ores. At this time you saw spinning and weaving of sheep’s wool for clothing manufacture. By Late Bronze Age – the inhabitants of England were part of a major maritime trading networked culture called the “Atlantic Bronze Age” that included Britain, Ireland, France, Spain, and Portugal where the Celtic languages developed with Tartessian as the first written Celtic language discovered. During the “Iron Age” Celtic Culture, derived from the “Hallstatt” and “La Tene” Cultures which arrived from Central Europe, the development of iron smelting allowed for the construction of better ploughs which advanced agriculture and the production of more effective weapons. The language at the time was “Brythonic” and society consisted of over 20 different tribals and was defined as “tribal”. Earlier divisions are unknown because the earlier Britons were not literate and had no written history. When trading began with the Romans, a written history was developed. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade Britain twice in 55 B.C.E. which was primarily unsuccessful even though he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes. In 43 C.E. The Romans successfully conquered Britain during the reign of Emperor Claudius and incorporated Britain into the Roman Empire as the province “Britannia” even though some tribes were still resistant. Boudica, the Queen of the Iceni, led an uprising that resulted in her death at the Battle of Watling Street. During this era Britain saw a make-over with the incorporation of Greco-Roman high culture bringing in law and order, Roman architecture, personal hygiene, sewage systems, agricultural technology, silk, and education. By 3rd centure C.E. Emperor Septimius Severus died and Brittania was taken over by Constantine introducing Christianity for the first time into the area (others claim Joseph of Arimathea introduced Christianity first to Glastonbury earlier as well as Lucius of Britain). 410 C.E. the Roman Empire began to decline in Brittania with an abandonment by the Roman Empire who needed to return to continental Europe to defend their frontiers there.

With the Roman retreat of 410 C.E. Britain was open to invasion by Pagan seafaring warriors known as the “Saxons” and “Jutes” who took over the southeastern part of Brittania even though at first they were held off by the Briton’s victory at the Battle of Mount Badon. In the North, the sub-Roman Brythonic Kingdoms in the north were collectively known collectively as the “Hen Ogledd” were conquered by Angles during the 6th century. Much of the history of this time is debated and in controversy amongst scholars as reliable accounts are non-existent or scarces as is archaeological evidence which is why the time period is called “The Dark Ages”. 7th century saw a coherent set of Anglo-Saxon petty kingdoms known as the Heptarchy that emerged in central and southern Britain labelled : Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. Christianity was lost during the Dark Ages after the founding of the Heptarchy but was re-introduced in the south by Rome’s Augustine and in the north by Ireland’s Aidan afterwards. This was followed by Viking conquests in the north and east, Alfred the Great imposed Danelaw on the land, and the English Kingdom became Wessex. His grandson, Athelstan unified England in 927 C.E. after Edred defeated the Viking Eric Bloodaxe. King Cnut the Great then incorporated England into an Empire that included Denmark and Norway but Wessex Dynasty was restored later under Edward the Confessor. It was on Saint Crispin’s Day that the “Battle of Agincourt” was fought and the English saw victory against the French Army during the 100 Year’s War. England was conquered by William the Conquerer of Normandy in 1066 C.E. back into the hands of France. This introduced feudalism and maintained power through barons who set up castles across England and brought in the new aristocratic elite language of “Norman French” into the area. The House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the Angevin Empire of fiefs where they reigned for three centures claiming fame to the monarchs Richard I, Edward I, Edward III, and Henry V. This time period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the Magna Carta that limited sovereign’s powers by law and protected the privileges of freemen. At this time Catholicism and Monasticism flourished bringing in philosophers and establishment of Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 13th century the Principality of Wales became the Plantagenet fief and the Lordship of Ireland was gifted to the English Monarchy by the Pope. 14th century the Plantagenets and House of Valois claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet as well as France – resulting in a clashing of powers during the 100 years war. 1348 England was hit by the “Black Death” epidemic that killed up to half of England’s population. 1453-1487 Civil War broke out between the Yorkists and Lancastrians that became known as the “War of Roses” resulting in Yorkist loss of the throne entirely to the Welsh noble family of the Tudors.

It was during the Tudor period that the Renaissance reached England by means of Italian courtiers who reintroduced artistic, educational, and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. This brought the England science and technology which advanced England’s naval skills including the invention of the theodolite and movements to explore the West. The Explorations were sparked by the Ottoman Empire’s control of the Mediterranean Sea that blocked off trade withthe East for the Christian states of Europe.
1534 C.E. When the Catholic Church had disagreements about divorce with Henry VIII, communion between England and the Catholic Church was broken and the Acts of Supremacy procaimed the monarch head of the Church of England. The division was a political one rather than the Protestant’s assumed theological reasoning for the split. THe 1535-1542 Acts legally incorporated Henry’s ancestral land of Wales into the Kingdom of England. Religious conflicts broke out throughout the land during the reigns of Henry’s daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I – who attempted to bring England back to Catholicism and the latter asserted supremacy of Anglicanism. During the Elizabethan period, Francis Drake led the English fleet to defeat the invading Spanish Armada. A race to the West with Spain, established the first English Colony in the Americas under Walter Raleigh in 1585 named Virginia. The East India Trading Company of England then began to compete with the Dutch and the French for the New World. 1603 England was inherited by Stuart King of Scotland who created a personal union under James I and styled himself as King of Great Britain. England was then thrown into conflict as an English Civil War broke out between the supporters of Parliament and King Charles I known as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was a interwoven part of the wider multi-faceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious and Charles I was executed. The Kingdom of England was replaced with the Commonwealth. Oliver Cromwell as leader of the Parliament forces declared himself Lord Protector in 1653. When Cromwell died, England was weary of Puritan rule, and thereby invited Charles II to return as monarch in 1660 with the Restoration. Constitutionally it was determined that the King and Parliament should rule together. The Royal Society was developed bringing in science and the arts as a stronghold in England. 1666 Saw the Great Fire of London that gutted the capital. London was rebuilt and Parliament broke into two factions – the Tories and the Whigs. Tories initially supported Catholic King James II while many of the Whigs deposed him – and the Revolution of 1688 led to the invitation of dutch Prince William III to become Monarch. The Northern Jacobites who continued to support James and his sons caused controversy. The Parliaments of England and Scotland both agreed to England and Scotland to join in political union creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. This union allowed for the law and national church of each to remain separate.

Shakespeares Britain Map 1964

Shakespeares Britain Map 1964

Appearing in the May 1964 issue of the National Geographic Magazine, this Shakespeares Britain map has been reproduced from its original cartography in order to bring to life a beautiful poster previously only seen in National Geographic Magazine. This reproduction holds true to the high standards that National Geographic Maps are known for.

Perfect for home, office or classroom, this map also makes a great gift. Map collectors will surely want to add this map to their library.

The Paper version is printed on high quaility semi-gloss paper, perfect for framing.
The Laminated version uses 3mm laminate on both sides for durability, is easy to clean and markable.

At this time the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with Scottish Enlightenment created innovations in science and engineering that rocketed the British Empire into being a world power. This drove the Industrial Revolution that caused a world-wide change in socio-economic and cultural conditions that resulted in industrialized agriculture, manufacture, engineering, mining, road-making, railworks, and waterworks. This allowed for expansion and development beyond its borders. England’s Bridgwater Canal was established in 1761 and brought in the canal age to Britain. 1825 brought the world’s first permanent steam locomotive hauled passenger railway – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – bringing public-transportation travel to all citizens. The Industrial Revolution saw many workers moving from England’s countryside to the urban industrial areas to work in factories. During the French Revolution, England maintained relative stability. During the Napoleonic Wars – Britain fended off Napoleon Bonaparte’s planned invasion from the south-east. Victorious was Lord Nelson at sea and the Duke of Wellington by land. This fostered a concept of “Britishness” and a united national British people that was shared with by the Scots and the Welsh.

In the Victorian Era, London became the largest and most populated metropolitan area in the world and the British Empires vast trade network push incredible growth and standing for the British military and Navy. The Chartists and the suffragettes caused political agitation which enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage. Powere shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I – which took great losses on English soldiers. With World War II, the United Kingdom fought again for the Allies with Winston Churchill as the wartime Prime Minister. Warfare technology developments caused severe damage by air-raids during the Blitz. After the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonization as well as a series of technological advancement. Automobiles became the primary means of transport and Whittle’s development of the jet engine led to wider air travel. By the 20th century, significant population movement took place to England from other parts of the British Isles, the Commonwealth, as well as the Indian subcontinent. By 1970 England moved away from manufacturing and onwards toward the Service industry. With the United Kingdom’s joining of the common market initiative called the European Economic Community led to the formation of the “European Union”. Late 20th century, United Kingdom moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland which had in effect created a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism.

England is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Acts of Union 1707 eradicated a Government of England since operating under the Treaty of Union that joins together England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Prior to this England was ruled by its Monarch and the Parliament. Today it is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom even though other U.K. countries have devolved governments. Now the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union where the elections are held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament. The 2009 EU Parliament Election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: twenty-three Conservatives, ten Labour, nine United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), nine Liberal Democrats, two Greens and two British National Party (BNP). Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues which has caused a need for a counterbalance in England. Since this has not taken effect, causing England to be the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly, and free top-up university fees which has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. English Law is the foundation of many legal systems throughout the Western world-view. The legal systems of the Courts of England and Wales while having similar basis they work from are separate legal systems. Law is made up by judges sitting in courts applying their common sense and knowledge of the legal precendent-star decisis-to the facts before them. The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases and the Crown Court for criminal cases. England consists of as many as four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities to create the local governments of England. In 1994 The Government Offices were established – creating the highest tier of local government that are the nine regions of England – North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and Greater London and are used to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally and to elect members of the European Parliament on a regular basis. Below the regional level all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties which are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974. Each of these counties has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff that represents the British monarch locally. There are 6 metropolitan counties that do not have county councils which are run by principal authorities that are councils of the subdivisions based on the metropolitan boroughs. 27 non-metropolitan “shire” counties have a country council and are divided into districts each with its own district council and are typically found in rural areas. Some remaining non-metropolitan counties are seen as a single district and correspond to large towns or counties with low populations that are known as unitary authorities.

Chester, United Kingdom PopOut Street Map

Chester, United Kingdom PopOut Street Map

Ideal for light travel and tourism, This Chester, England travel map features:

Award-winning PopOut Design, alot of info in a portable, easy self-folding map
Pocket Size conveniently fits in a pocket or purse
Outstanding Mapping striking graphics and recognisable icons
Updated Twice Annually assures accuracy and reliability
Comprehensive and Concise Indexing easily locate streets, places of interest and travel info
Eye-catching laminated covers show quality and durability

United Kingdom From Above: