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Ohio, USA

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Ohio, USA

The State of Ohio is central to the Midwestern states of the Great Lakes with its capital as Columbus. The state is bordered by the Ohio River in the south and the state of Kentucky, Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the East, Indiana to the West, West Virginia to the Southeast, and Michigan to the Northwest. The border with Michigan was changed due to the Toledo War to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the Maumee River’s mouth. It is the 34th largest state in the United States as per land area, the tenth most densely populated, and the seventh most populated. The state was named after the river of the same name, which came from the Seneca tribe’s word “ohi:yo'” meaning “great river” or “good river”. It has the nickname of being the “Buckeye state” and its residents “buckeyes” after the numerous buckeye trees in the state. The state was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803.

Geologically, Ohio features glaciated till plains minus the Great Black Swamp that is a extremely flat area in the Northwest. The glaciation from the east an southeast was the Allegheny Plateau, then another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau causing rugged hills and forests. The rest of Ohio is low relief. The ruggest southeast stretches as a bow-like arc towards the Ohio river from the West Virginia Panhandle. There are several major rivers running through Ohio such as the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Scioto River, and Muskingum River most of which drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean through Lake Erie and St. Lawrence River. Rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Ohio has a humid continental climate through most of the region except the extreme southern counties of the Bluegrass region that are defined as humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid throughout the state with winters ranging from cool to cold. Precipitation is moderate year-round though bouts of severe weather are not uncommon such as tornados, snowstorms, rain storms, and sleet. There have been earthquakes as well through the state.

The first inhabitants of the region were nomadic Native American tribes and peoples dating to as early as 13,000 B.C.E. The early nomads disappeared from historical record by 1,000 B.C.E. From 1,000 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E. the Adena culture dominated with semi-permanent villages with domestication of plants including sunflowers, squash, and potentially corn. The remainder was hunting and gathering moin into more settled and complex villages. The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County is one of the most superior remnants of the culture.

The Hopewell evolved from the Adena who also conducted mound-building activities creating complex, large sophisticated earthworks throughout the region. Trade became a major industry creating a large network amongst the early peoples of the region. The Hopewell vanished around 600 C.E. potentially from the rise of the Mississippian Culture Siouan-speaking people from the Plains and East Coast claim to be their ancestors living here until the 13th century C.E. It is believed that Ohio has three distinct prehistoric cultures: (1) the Fort Ancient People, (2) the Whittlesey Focus People, and (3) the Monongahela Culture. All three of these cultures disappeared by the 17th century with European contact and the diseases the Europeans brought with them.

The early inhabitants saw aggression and warfare with the Iroquois Confederation out of the area now defined as New York. The Beaver Wars of the mid-17th century saw the Iroquios claiing much of the area of Ohio for hunting and beaver-trapping. Epidemics from European contact also devastated the native populations by late 17th century. Towards the 18th century, the Algonquian peoples inhabited the region subsisting on agriculture and seasonal hunting. They became part of the larger global economy through the fur trade with Europeans and settlers.

With European contact and settlement, trade increased and Tobacco plantations were established. The Iroquoian Petun, Erie, Chonnonton, Wyandot, Mingo Seneca, and Iroquois Confederacy were the indigenous nations remaining from the 18th century onwards. Numerous massacres of the indigenous took place such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten, and Pontiac’s Rebellion school massacre until the remaining Native populations were pushed out especially with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

The French settled and colonized the area with a system of trading posts regulating the fur trade. France and Great Britain fought over the region in the French and Indian War as well as in Europe during the Seven Year’s War. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had the French cede control and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Come the American Revolution much of that changed. Control of the region went to the United States.

Ohio’s industry is based on coal mines, cargo transport, Lake Erie’s coastline (approx. 312 miles) for cargo ports, and manufacturing plants. Early industry collapses and economic despair brought great poverty to the area in the Appalachian Region – propelling the 1965 Congress Appalachian Regional Development Act addressing the concerns including over 29 counties as part of Appalachia. Ohio was devastated by the 1913 Great Dayton Flood when the Miami River watershed flooded destroying much of Dayton.

    Cities/Towns/Villages:

  • Akron
  • Canton
  • Center of the World
  • Cincinatti
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Cuyahoga Falls
  • Dayton
  • Elyria
  • Euclid
  • Hamilton
  • Kettering
  • Lakewood
  • Loraine
  • Mentor
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Newton Falls
  • Parma
  • Springfield
  • Toledo
  • Warren
  • Youngstown

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First Presbyterian Church / First Helen Chapel (Youngstown, Ohio)

First Helen Chapel – First Presbyterian Church
~ Youngstown, Ohio ~

This large church at the northwestern corner of Champion and Wood Streets in the heart of Youngstown, Ohio is a National Register of Historic Places church that was founded in 1799, the Helen Chapel built in 1889. GPS tours claims it to be the oldest church in the Western Reserve. The current sanctuary was dedicated in 1960 featuring classic Georgian Epoque elements. The architecture has four immense columns and three grand doorways.

Rated: Unknown of 5 stars. ~ Review by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

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Serpent Mound, Peebles, Ohio

Serpent Mound (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28935); Exploring the Moundbuilder - New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography
Serpent Mound (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28935)

Serpent Mound
~ 3850 State Route 73, Peebles, Ohio 45660 ~ 1-800-752-2757 ~ www.arcofappalachia.org ~

One of the most world famous mound-culture sites in Ohio, Serpent Mound is an animal effigy mound that can be seen from the sky or up high. The site is well preserved and protected, with a nice parking lot, rest rooms, museum, and group picnic areas. There is a scaffolding tower you can climb on to view the serpent mound better. There is a $8 charge per vehicle to park, otherwise admission is free. Park is open 9 am until dusk. Museum closes at 4 pm. You no longer can climb or walk on the mounds as they are being preserved for future generations and protecting their sacredness. This site is the world’s largest surviving example of an ancient animal effigy mound. It winds over 1,348 fee oer the ground, and the earthworks are beautifully preserved example of an undulating serpent with an oval shape at the head. These kind of mounds were created by aboriginal inhabitants of the area prior to Euro-American settlers and exploration. The earthworks are very sophisticated art and unfortunately through the past, many were destroyed by Euro-American settlers, homesteaders, agriculture, and development. Early excavations revealed no artifacts to help identify which tribe or peoples created it. It is believed that multiple cultures could have contributed to it over time. There were later discovered, three conical burial mounds right by the Serpent Mound, two of which date to the Adeno Culture (800 BCE – 100 CE) and one to the Fort Ancient Culture (1000-1650 CE). A nearby village site was occupied by both the Adena and the Fort Ancient Cultures. Carbon dating from within the mound has shown conflicting dates for both Fort Ancient and Adena Time periods leaving the mound builders a remote mystery. Excavations in 2012 reveal the buried foundations of a fourth coil near the head. While there are some oral traditions suggesting possible interpretations of its meaning and use, there are also many modern theories trying to explain it, but no sound complete explanation exists. There are striking astronomical correlations with the moon and sun, with astrological observations that can be made throughout the year with various seasons and festivals. The serpent motif has a symbolic connection to many cultures as a symbol of cycles of birth and death, resurrection , and the higher/lower worlds.

A tributary of the Ohio Brush Creek runs through the park, bringing many species of plants and animals to live here, rare and common. The rock cliffs below the mound are dolomite limestone as the bedrock base providing classic karst features of grotto cliffs, and springs / sinkholes around the region. The earthworks sit atop a narrow flat ridge at the edge of an ancient crater at least 4 miles in diameter. The crater was formed by a meteorite impact that occurred 250 million years ago, giving lift to this magical formation. At the ancient crater’s center, the bedrock was pushed upward at least a thousand feet from its original position. Throughout the bowl of the structure there are massive cracks, faults, and places where to rock layers are jumbled and even upside down. The Mound has international recognition and has been submitted to UNESCO – United nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization for the World Heritage List.

Serpent Mound (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28935); Exploring the Moundbuilder - New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography
Serpent Mound (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28935); Exploring the Moundbuilder – New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Seip Mound, Ohio

Seip Mound, Ohio ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28939). Exploring the Moundbuilder - New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography
Seip Mound, Ohio ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28939).

Seip Earthworks
~ Chillicothe, Ohio ~

About fourteen miles away from Chillicothe, Ohio as part of the Hopewell Mound Complex as a large earthen work complex that has a low embankment forming a small circle and an irregular circle next to a square that make up a 121 acre site. Within this enclosure is a large elliptical mound and three smaller conjoined mounds, as well as several smaller mounds, and several structure outlines found within the excavations. The larger mound was originally 240 feet long, 160 feet wide, and 30 feet high. Visiting this site, you’ll see a portion of the reconstructed wall, a reconstructed mound, and a part of the original wall. Public parking is located at the front of the site, there is a porta-toilet, and picnic shelter with information signs located throughout the site. The site is open during daylight hours and is free.

This mound is considered one of the largest of the Hopewell Culture mounds in Ohio dating from 100 BCE to about 500 CE. It was built by Native Americans pre-contact. There is estimated that there was over 10,000 feet of embankment walls that once stood 10 feet in height. The site was originally excavated between 1925 and 1928 by the Ohio History Connection discovering a large variety of artifacts crafted from an assortment of exotic raw materials like copper and mica. The Mound is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is owned by the National Park Service.

Seip Mound, Ohio ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28939). Exploring the Moundbuilder - New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography
Seip Mound, Ohio ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28939). Exploring the Moundbuilder – New Beginnings: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken November 26, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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