Tag Archives: ports

Bremerton, Washington


The largest city on the Kitsap Peninsula is “Bremerton”, Washington. It has a population of approximately 41,000 residents (2018 Census). It is the current home to the Bemerton Annex of Naval Bases Kitsap and the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. It has a straight connection to downtown Seattle via two ferries carrying vehicles and walk-on passengers back and forth for a 60 minute ride, and a 28 minute fast ferry for passengers and limited bicycles being located right across the Sound from each city landing in the heart of downtown Bremerton. The City’s historic center is being revitalized with fancy new buildings replacing the older foundations. Tourism has the Harborside Fountain Park, a boardwalk, a restored 1942 art deco Admiral Theater, breweries, coffee shops, art galleries, restaurants, and multiple naval history Museums attracting visitors from all over. Nestled within Bremerton is the historic town known as Charleston that was built to house and entertain sailors which was annexed in 1927.

In the 1890’s the area now called “Bremerton” was within the historical territory of the Suquamish Tribe, where the land was made available for non-Native settlements by the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott. It was designed and planned by the German immigrant Seattle entrepreneur William Bremer in 1891. That same year the Navy Lieutenant Ambrose Barkley Wyckoff bought 190 acres of waterfront land on the Sinclair Inlet which was originally owned by the Bremer family. Disputes over the land occures and three years earlier the U.S. Navy commission determined that Point Turner between the protected waters of the Sinclair and Dyes inlets would be the best site in the Pacific Northwest to create a massive shipyard. Bremer and his brother-in-law Henry Hensel purchased the undeveloped land near Point Turner at the inflated price of $200/acre and in 1891 arranged the sale of 190 acres to the Navy at $50/acre knowing the occupation would bring in jobs, money, and prosperity. In 1900 Bremerton became known as the “Navy Yard of Puget Sound” which spread to the Orient. 1901 saw Bremerton becoming incorporated by the State of Washington with Alvyn Croxton in 1901 becoming the first mayor. Unfortunately the Navy Secretary Charles Darling moved all repair and maintenance work on the ships to the Mare Island Navy Yard in California in 1902 because Bremerton became rife with prostitution, robberies, opium dens, and crime, throwing Bremerton into financial difficulties. By 1904 the city revoked all liquor licenses encouraging Darling to re-establish the Navy Yard as a port of call. The saloons came back two years later. There are two ships dry-docked known as the “Iowa coming up the Sound” and the “Torpedoboat Rowan”. During World War I numerous submarines were constructed at the Navy Yard and a third drydock added 4,000 more employees. In 1918 the city of Manette, east of Bremerton was annexed, then Charleston was absorbed into Bremerton, and growth expanded in the city. In 1942 the Admiral Theater was opened as a cinema then a playhouse / banquet hall by the 1990s. 80,000 more residents moved into the area for World War II production of ships for the Pacific War effort. By the 1950’s and 60’s more stability grew in the area and permanent settling occurred of many Government families, establishing more schools, bridges, and infra-structure. The USS Missouri was assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet in 1955 and stationed here, bringing in tourism and attractions – so that hundreds of thousands of tourists annually could walk the “surrender deck” where the Japanese surrender treaty was signed at the end of WWII. The ship was re-commissioned in 1985 and decommissioned in 1992. The new Trident submarine fleet and the Bangor Ammunition Depot 12 miles northwest moved closer to Silverdale and farther from Bremerton in the 70s. By 1978 most of the downtown area was seen as a blighted area falling into disrepair. The 80s saw unfettered growth with commerce, department stores, retail businesses, and other properties on the increase. By 2010 many buildings became vacant. The decommissioned USS Missouri was voted to stay in Bremerton as a museum ship and tourist attraction, then moved to the Pearl Harbor Naval Base in Hawaii by 1998. 1992 saw building of the Waterfront Boardwalk and Marina with a downtown revitalization project, the destroyer USS Turnery Joy became part of public tours bringing replaced tourism. In 2000 the waterfront multi-model bus/ferry terminal was constructed and in 2004 a hotel and conference center complex was built. The Norm Dicks Government Center was also built with housing, government offices, and a City Hall. 2007 came a newly expanded Marina, boardwalk extensions from USS Turner Joy to Evergreen Park. The same year the 2.5 acre Harborside Fountain Park was opened, more condos and buildings, a five large copper-ringed fountains, wading pools, and park.

The climate hosts a Mediterranean climate with warm dry summers with wet semi-mild winters, average rainfall at 51.74 inches and snowfall ranging from 0 to 46 inches a year.


Port Angeles, WA

Port Angeles
48°06′47″N 123°26′27″

Geologically the area sits along a long and narrow glacial morraine called the Ediz Hook that projects northeast for 3 miles into the Strait of Juan de Fuca making a large natural deep-water harbor shielded from storms and swells with depths perfect for large ocean-going vessels, tankers, and cruise ships. On a clear day one can see Victoria, British Columbia across the Strait.

The region that is today called “Port Angeles” was a natural harbor area populated by a variety of Indigenous peoples who hunted, fished, and camped in the area. It was the site for the Tse-Whit-Zen village of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe as a major ceremonial center dating back almost 8,000 B.C.E. It is believed that European contact with diseases and Smallpox suddenly decimated the Native populations upon contact in 1780 and 1835.

It was first encountered in 1791 by European explorers, first by Spain’s Francisco de Eliza. Francisco named the area “Puerto de Nuestra Senora de los Angeles” (The Port of Our Lady of the Angels). It was first claimed by Spain after this explorer’s claim. The name for the area was later shortened to “Port Angeles”. As Europeans traveled in the region, they attempted trade with the Indigenous inhabitants with some success. In the 19th century Euro-Americans began settling in the area with fishing, whaling, and shipping as its industry. In 1856 a village was established conducting shipping and trade between America and Victoria British Columbia. In 1859 the Cherbourg Land Company established a settlement. The Salmon Chase protege “Victor Smith” whose position was to collect customs in the Puget Sound decided to move the Port of Entry from Port Townsend to Port Angeles. He also convinced President Abraham Lincoln to designate over 3,500 acres as a Federal Reserve utilizing the space for military and naval purposes as well as building a lighthouse. Shortly thereafter, the Military established a Federal town site under guidance of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers who established the street grids that still exist today. Settlers followed the Government occupation and creation of the port of entry. When Smith passed by the sinking of the Brother Jonathen, interest in the area dissolved leading to economic downfalls. The Port of Entry was returned to Port Townsend.

The town got a renewed interest of settlement by 1884 with the establishment of a wharf, trading post, general store, and hotel. As ferries traveled to the area it became another port of Entry again. The population grew from 300 inhabitants in 1886 to 3,000 residents by 1890. By 1914 it became a central hub for the logging and tree foresting industry seeing the construction of a large mill and railway. When the Hood Canal Bridge was established in 1961 more tourism and visitors came to the area, especially for the outdoor recreation opportunities from the Olympic National Park and rain forests. Fishing and boating became very popular along the Strait of Juan de Fuca as well. By the late 80’s most of the mills shut down and tourism became the main industry.

2003 saw construction of the Graving Dock Project involving over 275 million for construction as part of the Hood Canal Bridge East half Replacement Project. In 2004 the project was abandoned as unfortunately an enormous amount of human remains and Native American artifacts were encountered during construction discovering the largest prehistoric Indian village and burial ground at the time for the United States. With over 300 graves and over 785 human bones, ritual and ceremonial artifacts the area received notable awareness as the Tse-Whit-Zen village of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe.

Today Port Angeles is a major city along the Olympic Peninsula offering shopping, commerce, events, tourism, and industry to the region. It is located along the northern edge of the Olympic Peninsula bordering the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The city sits within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains offering less rain than the remainder of western Washington with an approximate 25 inches a year of precipitation. It offers maritime Mediterranean-like climate with temperatures of 25-80 degrees but is vulnerable to windstorms, Arctic cold fronts, and approximately 4 inches of snow each year hosting cool summers and mild winters. It is the central headquarters for the Olympic National Park that was established during the Great Depression in 1938. Today it has an estimated population of around 20,000 (census 2010 – 19,038 residents).


Port Orchard, Washington

Port Orchard
47°31′54″N 122°38′18″

Both a inlet body of water and a town, “Port Orchard” or “Poor Tortured” is a Port along a Puget Sound strait that separates Bainbridge Island from the Kitsap Peninsula. It extends from Liberty Bay to Agate Pass from the North to Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage to the south. It was named by Captain George Vancouver after Harry Masterman Orchard of his crew, who acted as the clerk for the “Discovery” in 1792.

Originally a seasonal encampment by local indigenous populations for fishing and coastal activities, it soon became settled by Euro-Americans by 1854 when William Renton and Daniel Howard established a saw mill here. It was platted by Frederick Stevens in 1886 and first named “Sidney” after his father. It was incorporated as Sidney on September 15, 1890. It soon after became a military installation by the U.S. Navy. It was renamed to Port Orchard in 1892 by request of its residents at the time. This caused some controversy as a nearby town called Charleston had also wanted to change its name similarly. The Post office went through with the change and it wasn’t until 1903 that the state recognized the new name officially.

Today it is called “Port Orchard”. It is a charming little Port town with historic character and preservation, scenic beauty, and small town hospitality. It is a gem for artisans, craftspeople, and fishing. Seated within Kitsap County, en rout from the Mainland to the Olympic Peninsula, this historic small town of approximately 11,144 residents (2010 Census) greets some ferry tourists from the mainland with a slice of Pacific Northwest magic. Great views of the Sinclair Inlet, Hood Canal, and the Olympic Mountains in the distance. It is located close to Bremerton and is only 13 miles away from Seattle to its East, but is a quick ferry ride to either Seattle or Vashon Island.

The area was devastated by a tornado on December 18, 2018 with winds of 120-130 mph uprooting trees, destroying around 450 buildings, and a short-lived evacuation due to gas leaks.


Waterford, Ireland

Waterford, Ireland

From Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning “ram (wether) fjord”, Irish: Port Láirge is a port city in southeastern Ireland within the province of Munster. Centered in the Waterford Harbour it is a known port for ships travelling to and from Ireland. It is the oldest and 5th largest city in Ireland. Besides shipping, it is known for its glass-blown crystal known as the “Waterford Crystal”. In 2016 it was recorded to have a population of 53,504 residents and a metropolitan population of nearly 83,000.

The Port was first established by Viking invaders around 853 C.E. These long ports were vacated in 902 when the Native Irish drove out the Vikings. The Vikings re-established themselves here again in 914 C.E. under command of Ottir Iarla (Jarl Ottar) until 917, then by Ragnall ua Ímair and the Uí Ímair dynasty creating Ireland’s first city. By 1167 the deposed King of Leinster – Diarmait Mac Murchada failed to take Waterford and returned again in 1170 with mercenaries under “Strongbow” Richard de Clare the 2nd Earl of Pembroke besieging the city. King Henry II of England landed here in 1171 and declared int as a royal city with Dublin as capital of Ireland.


Rated: 5 of 5 stars. ~ Review by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

If you would like to contact the author about this review, need a re-review, would like to advertise on this page, or have information to add, please contact us at technogypsie@gmail.com.

August 1, 2012: The Dunbrody, Waterford, Ireland. (c) 2012 – photography by Leaf McGowan, technogypsie.com. To purchase this photo, go to http://www.technogypsie.com/photography/?tcp_product_category=photo
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Cork Harbour


Cork Harbour
* www.corkharbour.ie * Cork, Ireland (Eire) *

Spectacular views of Cork harbour abound from atop Curraghbinny Hill overlooking the waters. It is one of the world’s finest natural harbour’s with many river estuaries feeding it. The Rivers Douglas, Owenacurra, and Lee drain within and allow some portage for ships to communities along their banks to the harbour. The Harbour itself is a Special Protected Area because of the avian species that inhabit its banks. More historically, it is known for being the last port of call for the “The Titanic“. It is also home to three military installations: the historic jail site “Spike Island”, Fort Carlisle, and Fort Camden. The oldest yacht club in the world, known as the RCYC, as “The Water Club of the Harbour of Cork” was founded in 1720 C.E. The Irish Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster (IMERC) that studies ocean energy operates from the harbour, and along its banks are located eight out of the ten world’s largest pharmaceutical companies.

A natural harbour and river estuary at the mouth of the River Lee. Based on its navigation area, it is the second largest natural harbour in the world … the first being Port Jackson in Sydney, Australia. Cork City, the largest city at its bank, is slightly upstream on the River Lee from the Harbour while its suburbs of Black Rock, Mahon, Passage West, Rochester, and Douglas are much closer to the harbour. Smaller towns around the lower harbour area are Monkstown, Ringaskiddy, Ballinacurra, Midleton, Passage West, Crosshaven, Raffeen, Great Island, Whitegate, Aghada, and Cobh. There are numerous islands in the harbour such as Harper Island, Hop Island, Haulbowline Island, Great island, Fota Island, Little Island, Spike Island, Rocky Island, Brown Island, Weir Island, Brick Island, Corkbeg Island, and Hop Island. Cork Harbour had a number of fortifications (such as Fort Charles) built around it during the 17th century C.E. to protect essentially Cork City. Haulbowline installed fortifications during the 18th century in order to protect anchorage in Cobh. When America was gaining its independence, Cork Harbour built forts at Fort Carlisle and Fort Camden. The harbour didn’t have too much military importance until the Napoleonic Wars took place one naval headquarters were transferred here becoming an important anchorage to guard the English Channel and maintain blockades of France. Fortifications continued to be developed thru the 19th century. Fort Templebreedy was built just to the south of Fort Camden beginning of the 20th century. Once Irish Independence was won, Cork Harbour was included with Lough Swilly and Berehaven in a list of Naval British sites that would remain under control of the Royal Navy even though the Haulbowline Island naval dockyard was given to the Irish in 1923. With Irish Independence however, controlling and maintaining the Cork harbour became a difficult operation. It became a low Priority and disadvantage to keep for the English, so in 1938 the British Government handed them over to Ireland unconditionally. At this point, Ireland ceased using most of the military installations for military purposes as there was no need for them. Fort Carlisle was renamed Fort Davis and used by the Defence Forces for FIBUA training. Fort Camden was renamed Fort Meagher and is currently being renovated by local volunteers and enthusiasts as a tourist attraction. Fort Westmoreland was renamed Fort Mitchell Spike Island Prison and is also being used as a tourist attraction. Haulbowline Island’s fortifications are now the headquarters of the Irish Naval Service.

Today the Harbour is one of the most important industrial areas located in Ireland where shipbuilding, steel-making, and fertilizer manufacture took place even though today they are on the down-climb and replaced by the pharmaceutical industry. Here firms like Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Janssen Pharmaceutica, and others are conducting major business. They however too have been affected by the economic crisis and the 100+ pharmaceutical companies in the area have been affected during recent years. Transport through the harbour include import and export of oil, livestock, dairy, pharmaceuticals, grain, ore, cars, and other merchandise. It is also a major tourist port with numerous cruise ships and ferries coming to port here.


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Holyhead, Wales

The largest town in Anglesey of North Wales is Holyhead (i/?h?l?h?d/ hol-i-hed; Welsh: Caergybi [k???r???bi]) which means The Town of Cybi. With a population of just over 11,000, this city is most famous for being the major port adjacent to the Irish sea where many ferries come in from Ireland. It was once a Holy Island settlement and is located on “Holy Island”. The surrounding area has a population just over 16,000. The settlement was originally connected to Anglesey by the “Four Mile Bridge” which extended as the name implies, four miles. This was later adapted to become a much larger causeway by Lord Stanley to be known as “The Cob” carrying the A5 as well as the rail way line which runs parallel to the A55 dual carriageway. One of the popular tourist spots in Holyhead is St. Cybi’s Church, Caer Gybi fort, and the roman remains. The town centre is built around the church which is within one of Europe’s few three-walled Roman forts in existence, bordering the sea. Holyhead Mountain, inside Mynydd y Twr, is a prehistoric hillfort that boasts a Roman watchtower. The mountain is covered with remains of circular huts, burial chambers, and standing stones. Europe’s largest ferry company, Stena Line, operates from this port as does Irish Ferries with services to Ireland and Northern Ireland. The region is blessed with a maritime climate of cool summers and mild winters, however plagued by high winds.


Eagle Street Pier (Brisbane, Australia)

Eagle Street Pier
* http://www.eaglestreetpier.com.au/ * 1 Eagle Street * Brisbane, Queensland, Australia * 4000 * (07) 3100 2300 * stephen.castieau@stockland.com.au *

In the heart of Brisbane, along the river, is a cute little waterfront precinct called the “Eagle Street Pier” that is known for its fine dining, River cruises, and entertainment. This is one of the little less known place downtown to enjoy the river views and Story Bridge. Some of the popular restaurants in the area are “Matt Moran’s ARIA”, “Jude”, “The Coffee Club”, “Shingle Inn Cafe”, “Grill’d”, “Nagomi”, “Stellar”, “Jade Buddha”, “Bavarian Bier Cafe”, “Stellarossa”, “Il Centro”, “Cha Cha Char”, and “Sake”. Each weekend the Eagle Street Pier has a arts and crafts market where local artists come to sell their wares.

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Sligo, Ireland

Sligo, Ireland
* Province Connacht * Population: (2006) ca. 17,892 * www.sligoborough.ie *

“Sligo” is the Anglicized spelling of the Irish city “Sligeach” which means “shelly place” for its abundance of shellfish and shell middens. It is a town, a borough, with its own charter and mayor. While some refer to it as a city instead of a town because it is the second largest urban area in Connacht after Galway. The town is built on and around extensive Stonge Age shell middens going back as far as the Mesolithic. Many ancient sites are in the area with some notability such as Carrowmore on he Cuil Irra peninsula (early Neolithic ca. 4000 BCE) that overlooks the town. Sligo’s first roundabout was constructed around a megalithic tomb. The town is believed to have been first established by Maurice Fitzgerland, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, with the building of the Castle of Sligo in 1245. During the Medieval Age, Sligo saw several destrucive fires taking it to the ground. By the 15th century, the town and port grew in importance. Bram Stoker wrote of numerous ghost stories in Sligo that he learned from his mother who came from Sligo, mostly based around the Abbey that Fitzgerald started in 1253. From 1847 to 1851, over 30,000 people emigrated through its port to America. Sligo received its first rail in 1862 connecting it to Enniskillen in 1881 and Limerick in 1895. Sligo also hosts an airport with Aer Arann flights to Dublin. Sligo is also a port city with smaller ships docking. Four bus routes serve the town and area through Sligo center. Historically, because of its isolation, Sligo suffered much from a lack of development, but this has improved through the years.

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Penzance, Cornwall, England

View of Penzance

Penzance, Cornwall, England
Notorious for its historic association with ‘Pirates’ … Penzance is a small resort town, port, and civil parish in Cornwall, England. It is the most westerly economic town in Cornwall and is approximately 75 miles west of Plymouth and 300 miles from London. It’s name means “Holy Headland” in Cornish which refers to the chapel of St. Anthony standing a thousand years ago on the headland to the west of what is now Penzance Harbour. For a long bit of its history, its icon was the severed ‘holy head’ of St. John the Baptist. The Earliest history of Penzance was found in Iron Age settlements such as the Lescudjack Castle within the parish boundaries. Iron age settlements can be found throughout the area. Penzance was first referred to by its name as a place for landing fish in 1322. Penzance was victim to frequent raiding by Turkish Pirates. One of its oldest buildings is ‘The Turk’s Head Pub’. It was granted Royal Charters in 1512 and was incorporated in 1614. 1578 Penzance was affected by the Plague and according to Madron registers demonstration of massive death increases occured at this time (10%+ of the population of the time). 1595 a Spanish force led by Don Carlos de Amesquita landed troops in Cornwall seizing supplies, raiding and burning Penzance and its fellow villages down to the ground. In the 15th century Henry the IV granted the town a Royal Market. Penzance was struck by the plague a second time in 1647. Penzance has long been associated with its sister Village, Madron, which was a center of religious activity until 1871 when St. Mary’s Church was granted parish status by church authorities. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake caused a tsunamic to strike the Cornish Coast focalizing in Penzance. With Queen Victoria on the throne in 1837 – Penzance was a notable regional center and hosted the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall in 1814. 1817 Penzance introduced the miner’s safety tamping bar. 1812 Saw pier expansions and growth. 1852 the West Cornwall Railway terminated in Penzance harbour and later taken over by Great Western Railway in 1866. This allowed for perishables to be brought back and forth through the port as well as increased tourism. Popular also for its dry dock and engineering facilities – it became the western depot for Trinity House and serviced al lthe lighthouses and lightships from Stuart Point to Trevose Head. Penzance currently boasts a population of over 21,000 inhabitants. Facing the south-east on to the English Channel and sheltered by Mount’s Bay, it gets the most temperate warmer climate to be found in England.

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Bristol, England

Bristol, England:
Bristol is a unitary authority area and ceremonial county city in Southwest England, located approximately 105 miles west of London and 24 miles east of Cardiff. In 2008, its population was estimated at 421,300 inhabitants in the city proper and an estimate 1,006,600 residents in its surrounding larger Urban zone. It is England’s 6th most populated city. It received its Royal Charter in 1155 and granted County status in 1373. Bristol borders the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire being located near the historic cities of Bath to the southeast and Gloucester to the north. It is built around the River Avon, has a short coastline on the Severn Estuary flowing into the Bristol Channel.
Bristol is also known to be one of the largest centres of culture, employment, and education in the region with prosperity linked to the sea since its early days. Bristol’s economy recently has depended on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture.

The earliest evidence of humans in the area are believed to be 60,000 years old, discovered at Shirehampton and St Annes from the Palaeolithic era. In Leigh Woods and Clifton Down have Iron Age hill forts near the city. The Roman settlement of Abona (now Sea Mills) is in the area that connected it to Bath and present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas, forts, and settlements can be found throughout the area. The town of Brycgstow (“the place at the bridge”) since 11th century under Norman rule was one of the strongest castles in southern England. By 12th century, Bristol became one of England’s most important ports handling much of England’s trade with Ireland. 1247 saw a new stone bridge built into the city, which in 1790 was replaced by the current Bristol Bridge. Bristol was extended to include neighboring suburbs, in 1373 making Bristol its own county. By this time Bristol became a center for shipbuilding and manufacture, and became the starting point for many expeditions and adventures including John Cabot’s 1497 voyage of exploration to North America. By the 14th century, Bristol became one of England’s three largest medieval towns next to London, York, and Norwich. In 1348-49 during the Black Death, Bristol only had a population of about 10-12,000 people left. The area was hit hard. The 15th century saw a boom in the fishing industry especially as Bristol Fishermen began fishing the Grand Bankes of Newfoundland and settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers up through the 17th century with colonies at Bristol’s Hope and Cuper’s Cove. 1542 the Diocese of Bristol was founded with Robert Fitzharding’s 1140 Abbey of St. Augustine becoming the Bristol Cathedral elevating it to the equivalent of city status. 1640’s English Civil War saw occupation by the Royalist military in Bristol. 17th century during the rise of England’s American colonies and rapid 18th century expansion of England’s part of the Atlantic trade in African slavery, Bristol along with Liverpool became a center for the Triangular trade where the first stage of the trade manufactured good were taken to West Africa and exchanged for Africans who were then in the second or middle passage transported across the Atlantic under brutal conditions leading into the third leg that brought plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice, and cotton back to England. 1700-1807 in the height of the slave trade, more than 2,000 slaving ships were fitted out at Bristol carrying a half a million people from Africa to the Americas for slavery. Bristol still hosts the Seven Stars public house where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information on the slave trade. 1760 the maritime commerce was disrupted with attention relocated to the ongoing wars with France through 1793 and the abolition of the slave trade in 1807 causing collapse with keeping up with newer manufacture centers in North England and the West Midlands. The construction of the new “Floating Harbour” became hindered by the high tidal Avon Gorge affecting more disruption with growth from 1804-1809 causing excessive harbour dues. 19th century saw a population boom beginning in 1801 at this time bringing numbers upwards of 66,000 inhabitants. This was affected greatly by the design of the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built ocean going steamships – the SS Great Western and the SS Great Britain, and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Bristol from the 15th-19th became a city of maritime safety. 19th century Samuel Plimsoll aka “The Sailor’s Friend” campaigned to make the seas safer, as he became aware and shocked at the overloaded cargoes had fought for a compulsory load line on ships. 1793 and 1831 saw numerous riots fighting against renewal of acts levying tolls on the Bristol Bridge and the latter after the rejection of the second Reform Bill.

World War II took its toll on Bristol during the Bristol Blitz which devastated the original central shopping area near the bridge and castle as well as the St. Nicholas Church. 1960’s rebuilding of Bristol involved large, cheap tower blocks, brutalist architecture, and massive road expansion. The 1980s saw another trend closing main roads and restoring the Georgian Queen Square and Portland Square, regeneration of the Broadmead shopping area, and demolition of the city center’s tallest post-war blocks. The Docks were moved to Avonmouth Docks and Royal Portbury Dock 7 miles downstream so that redevelopment of the old central dock area (The Floating Harbour) could be achieved. 1996’s First International Festival of Sea was held in and around the docks affirming the dockside area into a leisure and tourist center point of the city.

Bristol is well known for a tradition of local political activism and is home to many important political figures such as Edmund Burke, the women’s rights campaigner Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (18671954); Tony Benn (1950-1983), and others. 1963 saw a boycott of the city’s buses after the Bristol Omnibus Company refused to employ black drivers and conductors which influenced the creation of the UK’s Race Relations Act in 1965. The city was the scene of the first of the 1980s riots against racism, police harassment and mounting dissatisfaction with the social and economic circumstances of the area. 2005 made Bristol a Fairtrade City center. Bristol has always been an unusual city with country status because of its setup and expansion.

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Yorktown Waterfront, Yorktown, Virginia

Yorktown waterfront

Yorktown Waterfront Union Port and Supply Depot [City Monument marker sign ] “1862 Peninsular Campaign” In Spring 1862, The Confederate heavy artillery batteries on the bluffs of Yorktown, as well as those positioned along the waterfront on both sides of the York River, effectively blocked the US Navy’s attempt to bypass Magruder’s 2nd Peninsula Defensive line. The waterfront fortifications were built by Maj. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder’s Army of the Peninsula and Confederate naval personnel. The earthworks on Yorktown’s inland perimeter were mostly constructed atop the British defenses from the 1781 siege. On the night of May 3-4, 1862, the Confederate Army abandoned the 2nd Defensive line. Gen. Joseph E Johnston, CSA, believed that the confederate positions could not withstand Maj. Gen George B McClellan’s USA elaborately prepared bombardment with heavy siege guns. The Confederate army was prevented from evacuating its heavy equipment and artillery via the York River because McClellan’s Siege Battery #1 comprised of 100-200 pound Parrot Siege cannon, had already bombarded the waterfront. The Confederate evacuations suddenly converted Yorktown into a busy port supporting the Union advance on Richmond. Members of the 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery retrieved the ordinance from the siege batteries around the town, and troops assembled at Yorktown to be transported up river to the Federal base at White House on the Pamunkey River, a tributary of the York River. As the Peninsula Campaign continued casualties from the battles around Richmond were transported to Yorktown which became a major hospital area. Following the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Yorktown became a Union garrison and headquarters for a federally held district which includes WIlliamsburg and Glouchester Point. Its waterfront area was an active port for Union forces until the summer of 1864 when the Union army established a supply base at City Point on the James river during the Petersburg Campaign.