Tag Archives: springs

White Spring

White Spring
~ Wellhouse Lane, Glastonbury, England BA6 8BL, UK +44 7340 288392 * https://www.whitespring.org.uk/ ~

Official Article: http://www.technogypsie.com/naiads/?p=4373

While backpacking Europe during the Summer of 2011 this was one of my favorite sacred spaces to visit, even more so than the infamous Chalice Well. The White Spring is a free-to-visit spring welling up in a Victorian pump house that has been converted to a temple and pilgrimage site. It offers calcium-rich spring water to all for free unlike the Chalice Well that charges high admission to enter their sacred garden. It was the concept and dedication to the well that strengthened the birthing of my decision to be a Water Protector and Springs Guardian for the remainder of my life. This space was monumental for this change from a Protector of the Ancestors (Archaeologist) to Water Guardian as my life’s purpose.

Within a few feet from one another, the two Isle of Avalon mysteries wells forth from the Earth bestowing blessings, magic, and healing to its visitors and pilgrims. Each offer different healing properties, the Chalice Well being the Red spring rich with iron, the other white with calcite, both from the magical caverns beneath Glastonbury Tor, with rumors of Merlin’s magic. There is actually a third Blue Spring that has since vanished.

A temple has been built here at the White Spring offering the gift of pure water that is cavernous, mysterious, dark, Gothic, and magical as contrary to the Chalice Well in a well lit open-aired garden. The interior has three domed vaults standing at 16 feet height with beautiful bowed floors some say mimic the illusion of a hull of a boat moored at the portal to the Otherworld.

The pools within were designed and constructed based on sacred geometry following the Michael ley line that flows through the space with shrines added honoring ancient energies and the Spirits of Avalon.

A company of volunteers watch over the Spring and temple who designed it, built it, and care for it on a daily basis. The site sees pilgrimages and visitors daily. Group ceremonies and meditations are also conducted daily during opening hours, including celebrations of the turning of the seasons, the full moon, and the new moon. Private ceremonies can be arranged. There is no charge or expectation of donations and all caretakers do not get paid.

The sanctuary is candle-lit and dark, the sound of the water flowing can meditatively be heard and is a guide for ceremony and contemplation. Talking or conversations is strictly discouraged as silence other than the Spring is desired, though songs are welcome and check with the well keeper if wanting to play musical instruments. No Cameras, mobile phones, or electronic equipment is permitted in the sanctuary.

Legend has it that Glastonbury is England’s most sacred site and is where the foundations of the earliest church in Britain was formed and may be the site of the earliest church in the world second to Jerusalem and was dedicated to Mary. (There is no archaeological evidence to support this legend) The Glastonbury Tor or the Holy Hill of Albion is also believed to be England’s most sacred mountain and a place of Ancient Goddess worship. The Tor and its caverns beneath host numerous aquifers and springs that well forth from its base. Many of the springs have dried up except the Red Spring (Chalice Well) and the White Spring. There is evidence of a monastic site at the summit of the Tor and archaeological excavations revealed it is likely that early Celtic Christian hermits once lived on the sacred site of the White Spring. In 1872 a well house was constructed over the spring creating a reservoir that was used by townsfolk who were suffering from cholera and therfore destroyed the beautiful combe that once was there. A historic document by George Wright in 1896 stated ““And what was Glastonbury like then? One thing that clings to me was the beautiful Well House Lane of those days, before it had been spoilt by the erection of the reservoir. There was a small copse of bushes on the right hand running up the hill, and through it could be, not seen, but heard, the rush of running water, which made itself visible as it poured into the lane. But the lane itself was beautiful, for the whole bank was a series of fairy dropping wells – little caverns clothed with moss and vedure, and each small twig and leaf was a medium for the water to flow, drop, drop, drop into a small basin below. This water contained lime, and pieces of wood or leaves subject to this dropping became encrusted with a covering of lime. For a long time I attended those pretty caverns with affectionate care, and Well House Lane was an object of interest to all our visitors”

The reservoir fell into dis-use as the high calciferous waters often blocked the pipes and by the 19th century water was piped into Glastonbury from out of town, the well house falling into dis-use and forgotten. In the 1980’s it was re-opened and reconstructed being used for drinking water for the town. The walls, floors, water pipes, and chemical paint added in the 80’s was removed. The high ceilings, bowed floors, and original stone walls were uncovered unveiling the cathedral-like structure you see today. By 2004 a new owner took over the building and erected the sacred space you can visit now. The temple was consecrated in 2005. In October 2009 various pools were built inside based on sacred geometry. Its design and layout is always changing. The seasonal altar changes at each turn of the wheel. The bower that forms the Brigid shrine is rebuilt with fresh hazel for Imbolc and a February 1st celebration held in conjunction with Chalice Well and Bride’s Mound.

The White Spring is dedicated to the Goddess Brigid – the Celtic Fire Goddess and Guardian of the Sacred Springs within, and a perpetually burning Brigid Flame flickers her magic. A shrine in honor of the Lady of Avalon is within as well as a shrine in honor of the King of the World of Faerie at the portal to the Otherworld. Legend has it that the nun named Brigid who was said to be a child in 525 C.E. filled with the spirit of the Goddess Brigid who was born in Ireland from a Druidic father named Dubtach and a Christian slave mother named Brocessa. She was raised in both traditions and chose to enter a monastery – making her an Abbess as well as a nun. Legend states she lived and learned at the Beckery in Glastonbury before founding her abbey Cill Dara in Kildare Ireland.

The Lady of Avalon is seen at the White Spring as the Lady of ancient feminine primary power as Mother, Earth Mother, Mother of God, and Mother of us all. She is forever conceiving and birthing yet remains unchanged as herself self-fulfilled as the Virgin Mother. She is a dark lady like the earth – dark, womb-like, safe, hidden, mysterious, vast, abstract, and protective. She is also called the Black Madonna.

The King of the Faeries represents nature as wild, beautiful, majestic, diverse, interdependent, and powerful. He represents the Fae, the Otherworld, and is King of the World of Faerie as well as all the nature spirits of this world. He represents the unity of both worlds.

It is said that the White Spring is a portal to the Celtic Otherworld. It is said that Gwyn Ap Nudd was said to ride through here.

More Information: https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-white-spring-glastonbury-england

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Cheyenne Spring (Manitou)

Cheyenne Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado, USA

Cheyenne Spring
908 Manitou Avenue, Manitou Springs, Colorado
http://www.technogypsie.com/naiads/?p=3133 by Thomas Baurley

Located right on Manitou Avenue in downtown Manitou Springs, Colorado is a sweet tasting natural Artesian soda spring called Cheyenne Spring. This sweet tasting bubbly elixir is believed to be over 20,000 years old and healing for digestive issues and osteoporosis. Drinking water this old empowers the soul with the geology of the Earth and peps the spirit. It comes from aquifers located a mile below the earth’s surface. This is one of the 7 most popular springs in the area.

Most of the Springs of Manitou were known for their health benefits, especially with digestive systems. This was especially helpful to the tribes visiting the waters as their diets were rich with wild game, the meat of which was notable for acidic effects on the body when consumed. These mineral waters helped re-balance the stomach acids.

This magical spring of Manitou has added health benefits based on its mineral contents that are well known for helping with blood pressure, nerve transmission, muscle contractions, osteoporosis, the heart, bones, teeth, and blood coagulation. It is also good for helping release energy from food digestion, regulating fluids, and stimulating the kidneys to release toxins. Magically it is a blood, bone, and heart tonic. It’s year round temperature is approximately 49-55 degrees Fahrenheit.


The waters that create this spring are said to fissure up from a mile beneath the surface fed by aquifers created from rainwater and snow melt of Pikes Peak. When the water reaches these depths, they heat up from the Earth’s core, become mineralized, and flow up through fissures and cracks in the Ute Pass fault zone where they become carbonated within limestone caverns, to the surface where they are tapped as natural springs or wells.


This was one of the natural springs frequented by the Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Jicarilla Apache, and Ute Indians throughout history. It was held as a sacred site for healing, meditation, and peace. Plains and mountain tribes agreed to peace during their visits while frequenting the springs together. It was the white man to break the peace of the area.

Fur trappers, miners, and traders came to the area and discovered the magic waters. It became an area known for curative effects in treating tuberculosis. When the Europeans and white settlers came to the area, they pushed the tribes from this area. The spring became commercialized in the 1800s. During the 1870’s, this was one of three springs located in Soda Springs park: Navajo, Cheyenne, Shoshone, and Manitou Springs.

By 1872, the Town Company, owned by Manitou Springs founder Dr. William A. Bell and his friend General William J. Palmer built a rustic stick pagoda over it and created a park called Soda Springs Park on the spot. They made the first bottling plant that year with an associated bath house combining the waters with Navajo Springs to prosper from its magical health benefits.

By the 1890’s it was contained by the current sandstone spring house by the Manitou Mineral Water Company and bottled. The spring house was constructed of stone quarried from the Kenmuir Quarry where Red Rocks open space now sits just east of town. Within the spring house is a historic copper-clad, carbon dioxide gas collector settled in the center of the cistern which the water company boasted was the world’s first mechanism to capture natural gas emitting from the source and being able to re-introduce it during the bottling process for the production of the best naturally sparkling water on the market called “Manitou table water”.

As the region was commercialized, the park diminished in size and was taken over by businesses. It was flanked by Soda Springs and Navajo Springs. When the company collapsed, which many believe was caused by a curse placed by the Ute that no white business would every prosper from the springs, the font and housing fell into disrepair until restored by the Mineral Springs Foundation in 1990-1991.

The current public font was crafted by local sculpture artisan Paul Rogers in Bronze. In June of 2011, a coli form bacteria was found in the spring closing the spring until it was dealt with. It was cleaned and re-opened shortly after. It is one of the most popular springs visited in the area.

Cheyenne Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado, USA


Cheyenne Spring is notable for its high Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Sulfate, & Potassium content.  Calcium for bones, teeth, heart, blood coagulation, helps control blood pressure, heart disease, PMS, and osteoporosis. Chloride is an electrolyte helping with fluid balances. Magnesium is good for bone and tooth formation, vital for nerve conduction and muscle contractions, and aids energy release from foods. Sodium helps with blood pressure & regulates fluids.  Potassium also helps with blood pressure, nerve transmission, and muscle contractions. Stimulates the kidneys & releasing toxins.   Alkalinity:     2,439 mg/L
Calcium:           440 mg/L
Chloride:          240 mg/L
Copper:            0.08 mg/L
Flouride:          3.50 mg/L
Lithium:           .743 mg/L
Magnesium:      90 mg/L
Manganese:   1.50 mg/L
Potassium:         75 mg/L
Silica:                   40 mg/L
Sodium:             450 mg/L
Sulfate:              190 mg/L
Zinc                    .102 mg/L

~ manitoumineralsprings.com
Analysis: Hall Environmental Analysis, ACZ Laboratories,
Colorado Springs Utility Laboratory Services.


Map Link: http://www.findaspring.com/locations/north-america/usa/cheyenne-spring-manitou-springs-colorado-co-80829/

References and Additional Reading:

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St. Columb’s Rill, Northern Ireland

St. Columb’s Rill, Northern Ireland

The source of the magic for the infamous Bushmill’s Irish Malt Whiskey, these volcanic blessed waters is the life stream of the elixirs produced at the Bushmill’s Distillery for over 400 years (1608). Saint Columb’s Rill is a tributary of the “an Bhuais” (River Bush) of Northern Ireland. The Rill is actually a rivulet, or really small stream, that rises in bog land five miles southeast of the Bushmill’s Village in County Antrim. It is named after the Patron Saint “Columba” of Derry/Doire. It is one of the inspired waters creating the art of Irish Whiskey known as “Uisce Beatha” Gaelic for “Water of Life”. It is the distinct mineral composition of these waters that gives Bushmill’s its distinct flavor, combined with the arts the distillery uses to distill them, triple distilled in copper stills, and matured to spirits in oak casks.

Saint Columba was a distinguished student of Saint Finnian in 546 C.E. (Common Era) when the monastic settlement of Derry was formed and established by him. Saint Columba was fascinated by magical and healing waters, and the Rill was no different legend states. Being concerned with the health of his community, he identified and recommended various springs and water sources for people to drink from. He was one of the twelve Apostles of Ireland who sailed across the Irish Sea in 563 C.E. beginning missionary work in the lands that became Scotland. They sailed to Iona, a small island where they created the “Cradle of Christianity” in Scotland.

Geology – The water that feeds Saint Columb’s Rill, comes up from limestone and sedimentary rock before passing through basalt and igneous rock gaining small quantities of calcium and magnesium which makes the water alkaline and slightly hard. This process feeds off the elements of the remains of former volcanic activity of the area that is much attached to the fabled Slemish Mountain 30 miles to the south which was the dormant plug of the volcano that created these stones. This mountain is riddled with faerie lore as well as Christian roots with being the home of Saint Patrick when he was taken to Ireland as a slave being the place he tended sheep and pigs in 405 C.E.

As The Rill moves northeast, it flows across acidic Sphagnum peat lands before making its way to the village of Bushmills. This colors the water brown and gives it its’ distinctive peat flavor. It is cherished so much by the region that it is protected and monitored by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency guaranteed not to be ever tainted or polluted. They had one incident in 2012 that was stopped once discovered that had to do with peat harvesting for fuel. The Bushmill’s Distillery lies in the direct path of Saint Columb’s Rill and captures some of the fast moving waters into their private reservoir holding in excess of 2.2 million gallons at any given time. The rest of the Rill runs underneath the distillery and discharges into the River bush, finding its way into the Atlantic at Portballintrae where the Giant’s Causeway lies.

In earlier years, there were four other distilleries licensed to operate near Bushmill’s utilizing the Rill. These have purportedly been closed since. The Bushmill’s Inn opened the Saint Columb’s Rill Relaxation Room that provides guests with a range of homeopathic procedures and treatments using the Saint Columb’s Rill waters for spiritual and physical healing.


Montezuma Well


Montezuma Well
* Montezuma Well and Montezuma Castle, Arizona *

One of my favorite wells in America, this Native American sacred site is phenomenal and full of mystery! When driving up to the Well, just north of Montezuma Castle, its a small 1/3 mile hike up a short hill to a naturally occurring spring in a sink hole thriving for hundreds if not thousands of years in the desert. Over the top of the sink hole is a series of empty cliff dwellings, caves, and ruins of stone pueblos from peoples who used to live at the sacred spring. It was formed by an enormous limestone cavern collapsing into the spring forming the sinkhole that you see here. From prehistoric cultures to a 14th century farm, the ruins on this National Park property is enticing on their own with the magical spring as icing on the cake. This natural oasis is like none other as a natural well with a never-ending supply of water for a region where water is very scarce. The waters in this spring well up from deep underground caverns and flow constantly out into the sinkhole and down through the boulders into the nearby river. The sinkhole measures approximately 368 feet across and 55 to 120 feet deep with an elevation of 3,618 feet above sea level. The well’s spring water trickles down through the limestone boulders into Beaver Creek, the sacred outlet being a spring hole under the boulders from the sinkhole and is most likely the the revered sacred outlet of the spring.

Over 15 million gallons (57 million liters) springing forth from these primordial origins. The geology of the area is very unique providing refuge to various species of animals, plants, and creatures that are found no where else in the world. This contributes to the sacredness it possesses to early peopling in the area, especially those living at Montezuma Castle cliff dwellings. The name “Montezuma” is a misnomer, as he most likely never visited nor knew of this place. The Hopi called it “Yuvukva” meaning “sunken spring” or “Tawapa” meaning “sun spring”. The Yavapai called it “Ah-hah gkith-gygy-vah” meaning “broken water”. The Western Apache called it “Tu sitch’iL meaning “Water breaks open”. The spring and sinkhole is embedded into emergence mythologies and is a place of origins to many tribes. The communities that settled here were able to exist here for several centuries. No one is sure of why these people left, but it could have been a build-up of low-level arsenic found in the waters affecting their health over time. The Dwellings date from the 1100’s of the Common Era (C.E) through 1400 C.E. when large networks of pueblo-communities set up their villages in the Verde Valley especially at Sacred Mountain and Montezuma Castle.

The two peoples that lived in this area well recorded were the Hohokam and the Sinagua. The first settlers were believed to be the Hohokan, a Pima word for “all used up”. They lived in pit houses made of sticks, poles, and mud irrigating crops of beans, corn, and squash. The second peoples were the Sinagua. Sinagua means “without water” in Spanish, and may have related to the disappearance of the people when droughts hit the area. The Sinagua created the cliff dwellings and pueblos upwards of 55 rooms in the area. They primarily farmed the area as well as some hunting. They were master craftspeople creating tools, manos, metates, ornaments, and garments. Natives first occupied the area around 2,000 years ago – along the Verde River and Beaver Creek. The peoples went through waves of occupations and disappeared almost as quickly as overnight. Archaeologists pondered the reason for this, from low levels of arsenic in the waters making them ill over time, drought, exhausted soil, diseases, wars with marauding tribes coming into the area, or viral outbreaks. No one knows for sure, but when they left, they left the dwellings in the same condition as they had inhabited them.


This sink hole has been a mystery to everyone who has encountered it. Science today is still stumped about its complexities – its depth, its source, and its constant flow. It is considered quite miraculous. The Yavapai and Apache peoples believe that once something emerges from its vents at the bottom of the well, it can never return. Oral traditions tell of the spirit of a great water serpent that still lives here called “Ah-hah bavilwaja” or “water monster”. That has been true, even to science. Even when a regional drought is taking effect on the area, a sweet 1.6 million gallons flow through its main vents every day at a fairly regular consistency and nearly constant 74 degrees Fahrenheit (23 degrees Celsius). Science thinks they might have an idea where the water originated and is constantly investigating with National Park Service dive teams. 55 feet deep, fluidized fine sand boiling up in swirling cascading mounds creating the mirage of a false bottom as the vents are another 65 feet deeper making measuring its depth difficult. They tried to put research equipment in and just as the legend dictates, could never get them in, they would always be pushed out. Specialists of all kinds have come to study the well through the years. The geology of the well tells its formation was between 10,000 and 13,000 years ago from precipitation atop the Mogollan Rim peculating down through hundreds of yards of rock, basalt flows, Coconino sandstone, Supal Group, Hermit Shales and others until it reached the relatively permeable Red wall Limestone beneath trickling towards the Spring that is Montezuma Well. The waters and soils combined with an underground dike of volcanic basalt forcing it back to the surface after its ten-millennium journey. Geological patterns and ripples of travertine just 1/3 of a mile around the spring are remains of another massive dome created by yet an older spring than the existing one in Montezuma Well. There are no fish within these waters, just thousands of freshwater leeches and is home to creatures found nowhere else on the planet. Since there are high levels of dissolved carbon dioxide – 80 times higher than any other lake, life is impossible for the fish, amphibians, and aquatic insects to settle here. The well is home to only 5 living species with the leeches being the top of the food chain. These are (1) Endemic leeches, (2) amphipods, (3) snails, (4) diatoms, and (5) water scorpions. The amphipods risk going to the surface to feed on microscopic algae trying to escape the leeches during the late afternoon sunlight. Once darkness folds, the leeches rise and feast on them. Migrating ducks, native sonoran mud turtles, and muskrats often come in and swim the waters on occasion as well. Around the edge of the spring is quite a varied assortment of plant and animal live. The plant life include the One seed Juniper, Arizona Sycamore, Arizona Walnut, Acacia, Velvet Mesquite, Velvet Ash, Joint-fir, Ephedra plant, Cliff-rose, Brittle bush, Salt Bush, Creosote Bush, Desert Broom, Spanish Dagger, Indian paintbrush, gray thistle, hedgehog cactus, gray thistle, pale evening prim rose, penstemon, prickle poppy, prickly pear, jimsonweed, milkvetch, yellow columbine, maidenhair spleenwort, and Globemallow. Animal life include deer, raven, american wigeons, coots, cinnamon teal, canadian geese, gadwalls, ruddy ducks, mallards, robin, roadrunner, red-tailed hawk, great horned owl, american kestrel, belted kingfisher, gamble’s quail, cardinal, canyon wren, black phoebe, gila woodpecker, great blue heron, lesser goldfinch, mourning doves, red-shafted flicker, gopher snakes, bull snacks, rattlesnakes, collared lizard, horned toad, cottontail rabbit, javelina, skunks, arizona gray fox, porcupine, beaver, chipmunk, cottontail rabbit, and jackrabbits.

While Native Americans inhabited this region for hundreds if not thousands of years, the first white explorer to come to the well was the Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo during his 1583 expedition. He basically described the Montezuma casle and well site in his journal as an abandoned pueblo with a ditch running from a nearby pond. Early settlers believed the cliff dwellings belonged to the Aztec emperor Montezuma which gave root to the naming misnomer. The castle was actually home to the Sinagua Indians and deserted a century before Montezuma was even born.


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Roman Baths at Berkeley Springs


Roman Baths
* Berkeley Springs, West Virginia *

Berkeley Springs West Virginia is noted for its special healing waters which the town is based around. In 1784 A Gentleman’s Bath House was built atop these springs which are now the Roman Bath House. It is one of the oldest structures in the state park. The original house had 5 bathing chambers that were 5′ x 18′ and accompanying dressing rooms, but this has been dwarfed through time. Not much is known of its history outside of a 1787 diary of James Rumsey. Others claim the house was built in 1815 or 1816. The baths currently are just heated “baths” or “pools” in a purported “Roman bath” style. The baths are open to the public daily, and for a nominal fee, can be used for bathing from 10 am until 5 pm fed by naturally warm mineral waters coming out of the springs behind the building, with an heating adjustment up to 102 degrees where there are 9 5×9′ and 4′ deep tiled swimming baths in private rooms. These are rented by the half hour for a individual, group, or couple. It was a nice road trip visit for a nice warm bath, but not like typical hot springs or competing bath houses. The waters did feel magical and special. Rating: 3 stars out of 5.


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Stratton Spring (Manitou Springs, CO)

Stratton Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado, USA

Stratton Spring
Manitou Springs, Colorado

From the deep fissures of the Ute Pass Fault, where the rainwater and snow melt of Pikes Peak meet and become heated and mineralized in the deep limestone caverns where they take thousands of years to make their way to the surface absorbing numerous minerals and nutrients as well as natural carbonation. Stratton Spring was a drilled source by the Stratton Foundation as a service to the town where they felt it was located along earlier Native American trails. The Mountain Ute would come through this pass alongside many other tribes to pay homage and become treated by the magical waters they believe were blessed by the great Spirit Manitou. In the late 1880’s, developers and Westerners pushed the tribes out of the valley and began to commercialize on the healing waters with spas, bath houses, and other commercial ventures such as bottling water companies. This spring, one of 10 within Manitou Springs, was believed to have healing properties to treat TB and other illnesses. This spring flows two gallons a minute of naturally carbonated soda type spring water. The well was drilled to a depth of 167 feet. This Spring being drilled, has little folklore to it besides it more modern healing attributes. It was drilled by Winfield Scott Stratton, a local carpenter and building contractor who lived in the area after trying his hand at prospecting during the Cripple Creek Gold Strike which led him to become the first millionaire from that Gold Rush. He died in 1902 and willed his fortune to take care of the county’s elderly and needy children through the Myron STratton Foundation. The Spring was restored by 1989 through an EL POMAR Foundation grant as well as various volunteers and donors from the region.

Stratton Spring, Manitou Springs, Colorado, USA

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Holy Wells and Sacred Springs

We have a collection of Springs and Holy Wells from around the world at www.technogypsie.com/naiads/. Please see our full collection there.


Holy Wells and Sacred Springs, a set on Flickr.

Via Flickr:
Photos from visits in 2011 to Holy Wells and Sacred Springs. 8 July 2011: Giants Well at St. Michael’s Mount; Madron Well. 31 October 2011: Chalice Well and White Spring, Glastonbury, England. Well of Tara.


Purification Pools at Saveok

Saveok Purification Pools:
Saveok Mill, Greenbottom, Cornwall, England

Located on the small local farm of Saveok Mill called “Saveok Water Archaeological Site”, resident Jacqui Wood discovered very curious archaeological features in her backyard when clearing the ground for a metal-work furnace on her land as one of her experimental archaeology projects. One of the phases of the site, was the uncovering of sacred stone-lined purification pools that had a plethera of ritual offerings within them such as cloth, heather branches, a cauldron, clothing, shoe parts, pins, finger clippings, and hair. This votive pool was found to have been filled in during the mid-18th century. The silt appears to have been imported into the site from elsewhere. This site phase appears to be a Neolithic ritual area was a series of Spring pools that may have been utilized as ‘purification pools’ or ‘sacred wells/springs’ through the ages. This natural spring line were large rectangular pools stone-lined with white quartz cores. As of this writing, there are at least two such pools on the site. Patterns of the stone lining, pool contents, and the seasonal filling of the second pool appears to have religious or ritualistic usage. Both of these features are very unique in Cornish archaeology – the only other such find was under the Maeshowe monument in Orkney that had a similar stone lined drain. Since anti-witchcraft laws were in place since 1541, their participation in these activities would have definitely remained hidden, for at this time the King James version of the Bible at the time declared into law that “thou shalt not suffer a witch to live“. [Exodus 22:17] The stone-line spring may have been utilized as a ‘holy well’ by these residents as well as its prehistoric use as such. The spring was packed full of ‘offerings’ dating to at least the 17th century including 125 strips of cloth from dresses and clothing, as well as pins, remains of a cauldron, cherry stones, human hair, shoe parts, imported heather branches, and nail clippings – all very commonly used offerings to sacred springs and wells. Modern day applications of these elements can be found existing in sacred wells and springs throughout the Cornish landscape today. Pins and cloth are common offerings to wells. Heather branches are associated with luck. The scraps of clothing could potentially have been remnants of ‘clotiers’ that are found around most of the wells throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland perhaps from a tree that was alongside the spring or just offered into the pool directly. (see modern example in article on “St Madron’s Well” located 25 miles from this site) This Well and/or Spring had sometime after the time of Cromwell had been filled in and destroyed in order to hide the practices that were taking place on this site since at least Neolithic times. The death penalty for the practice of Witchcraft officially ended in 1735 and by that time, evidence of this ritual site was covered over, and later residents of the site would have not been aware of what lie beneath. Over 128 pieces of fabric, varying from different weaves, thickness, and color were found in the votive pool. There were over 48 leather shoe parts found in the votive pool from sandals to shoes. Shoe offerings are notably in history to be associated with female genitals and could have been deposited for fertility offerings. Heather branches found offered into the pool are potentially good luck offerings done by gypsies. Six delicate pins were also found in the votive pool.

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Breitenbush Hotsprings

Breitenbush Hotsprings * PO Box 578 * Detroit, OR 97342 *www.breitenbush.com
A very restful and relaxing intentional community and resort nestled in the Oregon wilderness. It is a retreat and a conference center that is worker-owned community that specializing in spiritual retreats and holistic healing. Surrounded by the Willamette National Forest it is indeed a piece of paradise in the woods. It is located 10 miles up in the hills from Detroit, Oregon and about 50 miles away from the capital of Oregon (Salem). The resort was built atop the natural geothermal springs known as the Breitenbush hotsprings which feed into the Breitenbush river. Its a serene and beautiful place with great spots for meditation, healing, and contemplation. It certainly gave me the rest and relaxation I needed for the leg of my pilgrimmage to Faerieworlds. Unfortunately I didn’t take many pictures, as I wasn’t sure what the policy was, and only took pictures when no one was around which was extremely a rare occasion. Especially since it is also a naturalist resort down by the water at least, which is usually symbollic of no-photography. According to the resort, the springs was a frequent gathering place of local tribes. The tribes were apparently pushed out by Hudson’s Bay Company trappers who homesteaded it in 1904. Merle Bruckman purchased the site in 1927 and created the resort. It closed in 1972 after two devastating floods. Purchased in 1977 by Alex Beamer who wanted to host a full time community on site. The community took it over in 1985. The average temperature of the springs subsurface is 356 degrees Fahrenheit (180 degrees Celsius) and contains minerals such as sulfate, calcite, analcime, anhydrite, chalcedony, microcline, muscovite, quartz, wairakite, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and lithium. The surface temperature of the springs is about 180 degrees Fahrenheit (82 degrees Celsius ) – the lower temperature due to heat transfer to cooler rock near the earth’s surface. The buildings at the Springs are heated from one of two of the wells. The retreat and conference center, founded in 1981, is a very counter-culture popular venue for many events, gatherings, festivals, holistic/spiritual/New Age retreats. The grounds has springs, spas, hot mud baths, and saunas – plus a river for cooling off – all clothing optional. There are 7 hot tubs and a sauna open to the guests, and a private one for the workers. The sauna is a small wood house with slatted floors over a hot springs creet that sits 12. There are over 20 miles of hiking trails, rustic cabins, a lodger, tent platforms, a meditative labyrinth, a sanctuary, a gift shop, and a conference center. Services include massage, yoga classes, meditation, community vegetarian dinners, and other healing arts. The community is based on sustainability and generates its own hydropower electricity. Cell phones, televisions, and non-satellite radios do not work and there is no internet. All buildings are heated by geothermal energy. The community runs and manages it year round living on the 154 acre site. There are roughly 50-70 community members. New members are accepted by a community consensus after a year of work and paying a deposit. The place is pretty amazing and definitely one of my new hotspots to visit. Rating: 4 stars out of 5. (August 2009) Another visit, this time during winter towards the end of January in 2010 I found a very pleasant visit with brisk dips in the hotsprings, a steamy sauna, and catching up with friends. The Vegetarian buffet in the main hall was delicious. Definitely a wonderful time. Rating: 4.5 stars out of 5. (1/29/2010)

Me on the Breitenbush River @ Breitenbush Hotsprings

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