Tag Archives: towns

White Salmon, Washington

January 2, 2016: Exploring White Salmon, Washington.

White Salmon, Washington

One of the more popular touristy cities on the Washington side of The Gorge or Columbia River Valley is the town of White Salmon. Originally the home of the Klickitat Tribe and a popular place for salmon fishing. A good percentage of the land was sold by the tribe to Euro-American homesteader Erastus Joslyn and his wife, who were advocates for the Natives at the time period. The Joslyn’s opened the area for settlement on October 31, 1858 after the Klickitat and Yakama lost a fight for their homelands in the Yakama War. As Europeans came into the area and took over, pushing many of the natives out, and officially incorporating in 1907. The Klickitat were forced to relocate to the Yakama Reservation. Today White Salmon is within Klickitat county along the Columbia River. The Klickitat Tribe is now part of part of the Yakama Confederated Nations. The city is approximately 1.22 square miles.

January 2, 2016: Exploring White Salmon, Washington. (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=24101) Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Eadaoin and Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409

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Troutdale, Oregon

Troutdale, Oregon:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25911. Life in the Gorge: Chronicle 22 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  The Gorge/Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Photos taken March 27, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17903.  Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683; The Dalles:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=24107; White Salmon:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23677; Husum: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25039; Portland:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=281.  To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Troutdale, Oregon: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25911.

Troutdale, Oregon ~

This little unknown touristy town that is actually a “burb” of Portland outskirts / Gresham is the western gateway to the Historic Columbia River Highway, the Mount Hood Scenic Byway, and the Columbia River Gorge. It was once named after the Sandy River as “Sandy” with its first established post office as “Sandy” in 1854 but then closed in 1868. Another town in Clackamas County named itself Sandy and therefore this “Sandy” needed a new name – the pioneer John Harlow gave it the name “Troutdale” after a trout pond in a dale near his house, founding it as such in 1880. The Bissinger Company or Bissinger Wool Pullery came her and built a water tower in 1920. The company was featured in Ripley’s Believe it or Not! because a cat was found in a stack of animal hides during production, and after being saved, became the company’s mascot. The town is 12 miles east of Portland and sits at the confluence of the Columbia River and the Sandy River.

Troutdale, Oregon:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25911. Life in the Gorge: Chronicle 22 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  The Gorge/Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Photos taken March 27, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17903.  Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683; The Dalles:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=24107; White Salmon:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23677; Husum: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25039; Portland:  http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=281.  To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Troutdale, Oregon: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25911. Life in the Gorge: Chronicle 22 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian. The Gorge/Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Photos taken March 27, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17903. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683; The Dalles: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=24107; White Salmon: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23677; Husum: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25039; Portland: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=281. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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Ephrata, Washington

Lee Theater ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28299); Ephrata, Washington (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25725). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 22, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Lee Theater

Ephrata, Washington

A small agricultural town with about 7,600 inhabitants located in eastern Washington. It was first incorporated on June 21, 1909. There was no known settlement here until 1886, settled by the horse rancher Frank Beezley near the natural springs they called “Beezley Springs”. It wasn’t a very promising area for agriculture nor settlement and is probably a reason why this area has always been sparsely populated. The only activity that brought people to the area was the Northern Pacific Land Grant Act, the Homestead Act, the Desert Claims Act, and the nearby healing waters of Soap Lake. The city is believed to have been named by a railway worker “Ephrata” after the biblical description of an orchard in the middle of a desert, or as the ancient name of the town of Bethlehem. Area was popular for the numerous herds of wild horses in the area, which added to trade routes and horse round-ups. The last great round-up was here in 1906. From that point it moved to herding and raising sheep and cattle. Then came the Columbia Basin Reclaimation Project which brought in workers, technology, and industry. 1939 saw Washington’s longest runways being built here for the U.S. Army Air Corps until 1945, then turned into a commercial airport. Steven Spielberg filmed the Audrey Hepburn movie “Always” here in 1989. Ephrata was also filmed in the 60 Minutes II episode on the murder of Craig Sorger by Evan Savoie and Jake Eakin.

Lee Theater ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28299); Ephrata, Washington (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25725). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 22, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Lee Theater ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28299); Ephrata, Washington (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25725). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 22, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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Hood River, Oregon

Hood River beach - Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach – Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015.

Hood River, Oregon
http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683

A magnificent port city where the Hood River meets the Columbia River, “Hood River” is named after the river that flows through the city. A small city with just under 7,200 inhabitants (2010 census: 7167) it is a central point of tourism along the Columbia River and the Gorge. Hood River, the City is located approximately 30 miles north of Mount Hood – the tallest peak in all of Oregon. Across the Columbia River is White Salmon and Bingen, Washington. South of the city is Hood River Valley where some of the Gorge’s most famous apples, cherries, and pears are grown.

White Euro-American settlement in the area began in the 19th century, with the post office becoming established on September 30, 1858 and the city becoming incorporated in 1895. In 1908, Hood River became part of Hood River County after establishing its own county parting from Wasco County.

The city takes up approximately 3.35 square miles along the Columbia River, just west of the Hood River. The city resides in the transition zone between the wet temperate rainforest of the west and the dry shrub-steppe desert of the east granting the city a moderate climate with rainy winters and warm summers, and less rainfall than most of eastern Oregon averaging around 30 inches a year. Just 20 miles west in Cascade Locks, the annual precipitation is approximately 75 inches and 20 miles east, in the Dalles less than 15 inches a year. Temperatures are slightly cooler here than most nearby cities because of the air drainage off of Mt. Hood. Hood River area is known for the consistent high winds that channel down the Columbia River Gorge making it a very popular windsurfing location. Hood River has fast become one of the world’s most famous locations for windsurfing and kiteboarding. It is also a prime location for kayaking, mountain biking, skiing, and hiking in the U.S. featured in Sunset, Outside, Backpacker, Smithsonian, National Geographic Adventure, and the New York Times travel section as the “coolest small town” or the “fifth best ski-town in America”.

Hood River’s economy relies on agriculture, tourism, and sports recreation although the tech industry such as aerospace engineering with Google, Insitu and Hood Technologies being the largest employers in the region. In addition to cider and wine production, apple and pear orchards, the area is known for its cherries. The area is very popular for winery and cider tours, and the “Fruit Loop” because of the large Hood River based “The Fruit Company”. Hood River is known for its wineries and distilleries, especially Sail Brewing Company, one of Oregon’s most famous microbreweries. It is also home to Dakine the sports and clothing equipment manufacturer, Turtle Island Foods – the vegetarian food manufacturer who produces Tofurky. Hood River is also home to many arts and cultural gatherings. Each year in April, the Hood River Valley Blossom Festival is held and in October the Hood River Valley Harvest Festival. Each August, the annual Gorge Games takes place with competitions in 10 sports such as windsurfing, kiteboarding, outrigger canoeing, and rock climbing. Hood River is home to a protected harbor called “The Hook” where it is popular to teach windsurfing. There is also a Waterfront Park with public pool, Skate Park, biking trails, and ball fields. Numerous other smaller parks exist as well. There are also two 18-hole golf courses.

Hood River is also home to the Columbia Gorge Hotel (National Register place), History Museum of Hood River County, International Museum of Carousel Art, Western Antique Aero plane & Automobile Museum, and over 2 dozen other National Register of Historic Places.

Racially, Hood River is approximately 63% white, 24% Hispanic, 1.6% Asian/Pacific Islander, .5% African American, .6% Native American, 3% Mixed, and 7.4% from other races according to the 2010 census.

Hood River/Columbia River marina. Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River/Columbia River marina. Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.

Hood River, Oregon (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683). 01/22/16: Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17903 -   Photos from  January 22, 2016 . (c) 2016 - photo by Photographers Thomas Baurley /   Leaf McGowan   of Technogypsie Productions Photography: (www.technogypsie.com/photography/).
Hood River, Oregon (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683). 01/22/16: Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17903 – Photos from January 22, 2016 . (c) 2016 – photo by Photographers Thomas Baurley / Leaf McGowan of Technogypsie Productions Photography: (www.technogypsie.com/photography/).
Hood River beach - Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach – Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach - Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach – Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach - Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach – Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.

Hood River beach - Exploring Hood River - Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by   Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.
Hood River beach – Exploring Hood River – Monday, 28 December 2015. Chronicles 22: Life in the Gorge/Columbia River. November-December 2015. Photographs by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Productions. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Reviews: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. Chronicle tales: http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=17409. Hood River: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=23683. Columbia river; http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=1151.

    “Hood River {from Steamboats to Sailboards} Gale-Force winds bedeviled explorers and emigrants alike in the Columbia River Gorge. Journals from the 1800s depict travel as treacherous through the singular passage in the Cascade Range where 60 mile per hour gusts are common. By the 1880s, steamboats and a new railroad linked Hood River with communities to the east and west. Spectacular scenery and a dryer climate made this blustery place a popular escape from the dampness and drizzle of western Oregon. When the Historic Columbia River Highway reached Hood River in 1916, Portlanders flocked to this hamlet in their Model T’s. Today the same conditions that created dry, breezy appeal at the turn of the century offer perfect conditions for windsurfing. Many visitors now come to Hood River just to glimpse “board heads” engaged in this colorful sport – Mountaineering became popular in the West during the 1890s and Hood River allowed the best access to Mt. Hood. Cloud Cap Inn, Oregon’s oldest mountain resort was constructed at the 6000 foot level of the mountain’s North Slope in 1889. The Inn was a favorite summer destination for hikers, and mountain climbers. Today it is a base for mountain rescue operations. Excursions “round the mountain” from Hood River were a must when the Mt. Hood Loop Road opened in 1925. Lumber baron Simon Benson built the Columbia Gorge Hotel right) on a cliff overlooking the river in 1921 for $500,000. The hotel catered to upscale clientele serving dainty lunches and salmon dinners. In the center of town, the Hood River Hotel provided accommodations for commercial travelers. Windsurfing once an obscure avocation for the brave or foolhardy, is today a multi-million-dollar industry in the Columbia River Gorge. ” ~ information sign, Hood River beach by the bridge, Hood River, Oregon.

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Sleepy Hollow, New York

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Sleepy Hollow, New York, USA

Most known for its Legend by Washington Irving. The town was originally “North Tarrytown” but name-changed to the village of “Sleepy Hollow” in 1996/1997 to memorialize the stories and Washington Irving. Sleepy Hollow is a small village located within Westchester County of New York, right by Tarrytown (to its south) in the town of Mount Pleasant. It embraces roughly 5.1 square miles and sits 89 feet above sea level. In 2010, its population was around 9,870 inhabitants. It is situated along the eastern bank of the Hudson River right near the Tappan Zee bridge. It is only 30 miles away from Manhattan. Plans were discussed about merging Tarrytown and Sleepy Hollow in 2007 since they share some services and a school district to reduce school and property taxes, but never went through. Sleepy Hollow is home to the Edward Harden Mansion, The Headless Horseman Bridge, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Patriot’s Park, Philipse Manor Railroad Station, Tarrytown Light, the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow, Rockefeller State Park Preserve, The 1883 Lighthouse, Kingsland Point Park, Philips Manor Beach Club, Hudson Valley Writer’s Center, and the Philipsburg Manor House. Famous residents other than Washington Irving are Elsie Janis, David Rockefeller Sr., Adam Savage, and Pete Holmes.

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Santeetlah Lake, NC

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Santeetlah Lake
Santeetlah Lake

Near the historic Smokey Mountains, in Graham County, North Carolina, is a small town built along the shores of Lake Santeetlah. The town and lake share the name. Boasting a population of approximately 67 (census 2000), the town has approximately 200 residences. Santeetlah is located approximately 6 miles north of Robbinsville and only 15 miles from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The lake is surrounded by the Nantahala National Forest. The area is a resort community. Established in 1989 as “Santeetlah”, it was changed to “Lake Santeetlah” in 1999. Originally hunting grounds by various Native American tribes, the area was settled very late by westerners. The area was one of the last sections of the eastern United States to be settled by Europeans. A Detroit native named Kenneth S. Keyes, Sr. found the area and exchanged with the Forest service some land he had held for the area and this was then built into the town of Lake Santeetlah. The originally called the property “Thunderbird Estates” with a dream of building a large hotel complex in the area. He never built, and in 1958 he sold the property to another Florida land developer, and from there it went through a couple of exchanges. By the early 1960’s – Smoky Mountain Resorts built a lodge and some cabins here offering much recreation for those seeking a vacation escape. Always short on funding, the resort fell through various ups and downs, until 1971 when it was sold to W. Bennett Collette. Battles, disputes, and law suits flooded the area over a variety of grievances by owners and residents, becoming resolved by the late 1990’s. The lake is popular by outdoor recreationists who fish bass, walleye, crappie, lake trout, and bream in its waters. The Marina on the lake is the only full-serviced marina on a lake that has 76 miles of shoreline. Around the lake is home to over 200 miles of hiking trails, and area known for swimming, camping, hiking, boating, and picnicking.

Smokey Mountains, North Carolina, USA

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Keflavik, Reykjavik, Iceland

Keflavik
Reykjavik, Iceland

When you fly into Reykjavik, you actually land just outside of Keflavik. “Keflavik” means “Driftwood Bay” and is a prominent town in the Reykjanes region of Southwestern Iceland. With a population of just over 8,000 it is part of a larger municipality region called Reykjanesbaer totalling over 13,000 inhabitants. The town was founded in the 16th century developed over its fishing industry by Scottish entrepreneurs. The airport was added in the 1940’s. Earlier, the airport was home to a important NATO military base and pre-jet refueling stop for trans-Atlantic air traffic. It was a popular refuel point during World War II, and during the cold war the air station was used to monitoring marine and submarine traffic from the Norwegian and Greenland seas through the Atlantic. Once the Soviet Union collapsed, the base was no longer needed, and officially closed in 2006. Keflavik was also a popular hotspot for Icelandic music, especially during the 1960’s-1970’s at which point was called “The Beatle Town”. The town was used as a theme for Tom Clancy’s novel “Red Storm Rising”.

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Lakes Entrance

Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia

In the Eastern part of the state of Victoria Australia lies a man-made channel that connects the Gippsland Lakes to the Bass Strait that is an abundant hotspot for tourism, fishing, and watersport recreation. A small village of just over 4,000 residents, “Lakes Entrance”, formerly “Cunnighame” was first inhabited in 1870 and given its current name in 1915. The area is known for its panoramic views and its fishing. It is also very popular for caravan park camping as well as its “free” camping spots in its bordering Colquhoun State Forest. Lakes Entrance served as a “entrance” for us coming from Melbourne urban wanderings to begin our trek into nature and the coast for camping and fishing. We pulled over into the harbour where we were greeted by boaters, fishers, and lots of giant pelicans.

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Albury, New South Wales, Australia

Albury
New South Wales, Australia

In the heartland of New South Wales just bordering Victoria, Australia lies the small agricultural town of Albury which serves as a major regional center for New South Wales along the Hume Highway and the Murray River. In Aborigine, this area is called “Mungabareena” or “place of plenty talk”. It is NSW’s second largest inland city next to Wagga Wagga with a whopping 53,507 inhabitants. The River Murray separates it from its Victoria twin city “Wodonga”, which if counted as one, would have a population in excess of 90,000. The area was once infamous for its orchards and vineyards bu has since been over developed by housing. Ecologically the area is known for Lake Hume that is along the Murray River that is home to the Hume (or Weir) Dam that provides 60 Megawatts of power to the state of New South Wales. Surrounded by the Murray River flats in the Great Dividing Range’s foothills, Albury sits atop 539 feet above sea level. With warm temperate seasonal climates, the summers range from warm to hot with cool to mild winters, and an experience of all four seasons throughout the year. Albury is home to agriculture, business, railways, and commerce. It is home to the Australian pizza chain known as “Eagle Boys”. It is also a stronghold for Australian rules football especially with the Ovens and Murray Football League. THe Mugabareena Reserve is located along the Murray River just south of the airport giving significant aboriginal attention and importance to the Albury area. While the area has been inhabited by Aborigine for tens of thousands of years, the first white settlers arrived in November 1824 and called “Crossing Point” for its popular crossing place across the Murray River where explorer Hovell inscribed the name in a tree. These settlers built the first European buildings at the Crossing with a provisions store and small residential huts. The town was named after the Kent England village “Albury” as it shared resemblance. The settlement expanded in 1847 to two public houses, a handful of huts, police barracks, and a blacksmiths. THe main bridge was built in 1860 and the area became a customs post between the two colonies as New South Wales and Victoria. The area was habitated by a significant population of German immigrants who began harvesting grapes in the area for wine production. By the 1870’s it was home to several wineries, a butter factory, a flower mill, a cider brewery, and a soft drink manufacturer. By 1881 the railway from Sydney arrived and by 1888 Albury received its first school house. Also popular for theater performance groups it was home to the Flying Fruit Fly Circus in 1979. Albury is also greatly known for the outdoor recreation area of Lake Hume and Mitta Mitta river that is 10 kilometers upstream of the city that gives hydro-electrical power to the city.

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Cooma, New South Wales

Cooma
New South Wales, Australia

A small little town in the southern region of New South Wales, Cooma is just 115 kilometers south of Canberra. It is the entry to the “Snowy Mountains” Region and is along the Snowy Mountains Highway that connects Bega with the Riverina. With a tiny population of 6,587 inhabitants, and 2,620 feet above sea level. It is a country and mountain town popular amongst hikers, backpackers, travellers, campers, fishermen, and skiiers. The town’s name comes from the Aboriginal term “Coombah” which means “big lake” or “open country”. While Aboriginal inhabitants have had a presence here, the region was first explored by white settlers by Captain J.M. Currie in 1823 receiving its first survey in 1840 and claimed a municipality by 1879. By 1889 the Sydney railway extended from Roalla to Cooma. The town quickly became the headquarters for the Snowy Mountains Scheme and is commemorated as such by the avenue of flags in the city center’s park that represents over 27 nationalities of people working on the scheme.

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Gerlach, Nevada

Gerlach, Nevada, USA:

Gerlach was founded with the construction of the Feather River Route of the Western Pacific Railroad from 1905-1909. Very much tied with Empire, Gerlach is the larger of the two towns on the edige of Black Rock Desert. Combined population with Empire is about 500 according to the 2000 Census. Both towns support the local ranching and Gypsum plant miners as well as the annual festival tourism from Burning Man. With the January 2011 closing of the Empire Gypsum mine, and Empire becoming officially a ghost town, the population of children in Gerlach will be reduced to about 7-15. As opposed to Empire’s only convenience store/gas station, a Shell station was established for 24 hour service as Empire’s gas station is expected to close this year. Gerlach has a Union Pacific switching station as well as Washoe County public services including a roads department and a K-12 public school. There are 3 bars in Gerlach, Bruno’s Country Club, Bev’s Miners Club, and Joe’s Gerlach Club. Gerlach also has the only restaurant and motel for 80 miles. The rest of Gerlach consists of small private businesses, mainly internet-based. Gerlach’s population is increased every Labor day with the creation of the temporary festival city of Black Rock City by approximately 50,000 tourists. Gerlach has a small airfield suitable only for light planes as a graded dirt strip. Gerlach was the film setting of “Far From Home” starring Drew Barrymore.
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Naas, Ireland

Naas, Ireland
* http://www.naas.ie/ *
Inbetween Dublin and Kildare (as well as Cork, Limerick, and Waterford) is the little town of Naas, Ireland. “Naas” or “An Nás” means “The Place of Assembly”. It has also been calls “Nas Laighean” which means “The Place of The Leinstermen” or as “Nás na Riogh” which means “The Place of Assembly of the Kings”. In early times it was the seat of the King of Leinster and the North Mote is where the ancient royal palace once stood. It is believed St. Patrick came here and had camped on the site of the now present Protestant Parish Church. The Normans fortified the city and then plundered by Robert and Edward Bruce in 1316. The modern Church of Ireland now resides in what was once a Norman Castle and part of the towns fortifications. The last of the Kings of Naas as a King of Leinster was Cearbhall who died in 989 C.E. It was here that one of the first battles of the Rebellion of 1798 took place when 1,000 rebels were defeated in an unsuccessful attack on the town. Theobald Wolfe Tone, one of the leaders of the United Irishmen is buried just outside the city at Bodenstown. With a population of 16,000+, Naas is the 15th largest town in the Republic of Ireland and with new developments expects to have a population of 30,000+ in the near future. The town has a library, a tax office, a new Gaelic Athletic Association club, a large new public swimming pool, a leisure center, an athletics club, a range of schools, the Naas General Hospital, a horse racecourse, a soccer club, a tennis club a hockey club, a rugby club, two major nightclubs including the famous ‘Time’ nightclub, a five-screen 3D cinema, several pubs, five supermarkets, county council offices, two Roman Catholic Churches (The Church of Our Lady and St. David dating from 1827), one Church of Ireland, one Presbyterian Church, a number of hotels and the new Moat Theatre. Naas hosts one of the largest scouting groups in Ireland with 2 Beaver nights, 3 cub nights, 3 scout nights, and a very large venture group as well as a proposed rover group.

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Kill, Ireland


Kill, Ireland

Between Dublin and Kildare is the small little village of “Kill” which resides on Kildare’s border with Dublin. “Kill” has a population of approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Kill is infamous for its Equestrian traditions as there are numerous riding schools in the area. “Kill” or “An Chill” means “The Church”. There are two churches in the village, which are St. John’s Church of Ireland and St. Brighid’s Catholic Church (ca. 1650). The Catholic Church fell into disrepair and was rebuilt in 1821 as a Protestant Church.
The pretty village of Kill is on Kildare’s border with Dublin . The village has a population of approximately 2,000. The pubs here were also infamous as there were wo sheebeens and a public house. Sheebeens are litle one-roomed thatched cottages that have a big window out of which the drinks would be served. The public house is still there and called “The Old House” which was built in 1794 and rebuilt in 1943.

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Cashel, Ireland

Article by Leaf McGowan, © 2010, 2014 all rights reserved originally published 11/25/2010 through Technogypsie Productions in Dublin, Ireland.

Cashel, Ireland
Infamous location for the “Rock of Cashel”, Cashel is a small village rich in history and heritage. It is home to the Hore Abbey medieval monasteries, A Georgian Cathedral, fortified town houses, 21st century Library, and many other attractions. In the heart of the city center is the Heritage Center and Tourist Office which has a small museum/series of Kiosk on Cashel’s history. “Cashel” is named after the Irish Gaelic “Caiseal” which means “ring fort” following such amazing ring forts in its surrounding landscape. “Cashel” is also Irish for “castle” which is reminiscent of the hill top that looms over the town within which is a cathedral and fort known as the Rock of Cashel which the town is most famous for. This is one of the six cathedrals of the Anglican Bishop of Cashel and Ossory and the civil parish of St. Patrick’s Rock – the historical barony of the Middle Third. Cashel is located in South Tipperary and has a population of approximately 2,936 (2006 census).

The Rock of Cashel is an isolated elevation of stratified limestone jutting abruptly out of the Golden Vale which became home to the current day ruins of the Cathedral now atop its peak. In Ancient days, this was known to be a “Sid-Druim” or “Fairy Hill” and said to be the “dun” or “castle” of the ancient Eoghnacht Chiefs of Munster. It is believed that this castle was a circular ring fort of stones which the “Book of Rights” suggest was called “Cais-il” or “tribute stone” as the Munster tribes paid tribute here. Aengus Mac Natfraich’s grandfather Corc built this fort making Cashel the capital of Munster. It became one of the most celebrated courts of the region, next to Tara and Armagh which during St. Patrick’s time claimed supremacy over all the royal duns of the province with Aengus as the King of Cashel. Aengus was baptized here by St. Patrick. By the 5th century C.E. the Eóganachta dynasty set up their capital here with many Munster kings holding reign here. In 450 CE, Saint Patrick held mass here often converting king Aengus to Catholicism. Under the same authority, the 27 kings of Aengus’ race with his brother Aillil ruled from Cashel until 897 C.E. ending with Cerm-gecan being slain in battle. Cormac MacCullinan was believed to be the Archbishop of Cashel, albeit no evidence supporting he was anything more than a regular bishop, even though he was deemed Cashel. He was famous more as being a scholar and warrior well trained in the arts and sciences of his time. He was famous for leaving Ireland a glossary of Irish names as well as his studies on the history and antiquity of Ireland. He was killed in battle near Carlow in 903 C.E. In 977 C.E. Brian Boru was crowned here as the first non-Eóghanacht king of Cashel and Munster in over 500 years. Boru fortified Cashel in 990 C.E. building up much of the fortifications you now see today are built atop. The hill was originally a castle, not a cathedral. Kings of Munster ruled here until 1100 C.E. granting the title “City of Kings” to the area. Against modern legend, there is no substantial evidence to support the claim that St. Patrick built the church here nor appointed a Bishop of Cashel, much of which probably was the works of St. Ailbe in neighboring Emly. It wasn’t until 1101 C.E. when the Rock and its surrounding city was granted to O’Dunan, the noble bishop of Munster, dedicating it to God and Saint Patrick. It was from here that Cashel grew into the religious significance upon which legends speak. Boru’s great grandson King Muircheartach Ua Briain gave the place to the bishop of Limerick setting a long history of denying access to it from the MacCarthys, the senior branch of the Eóganachta. He set up a famous school here dispersing trained priests all over the continent even as far as Germany. By 1127 C.E. Cormac III of Munster, the King of Desmond, erected the church on the Rock known as “Cormac’s Chapel” consecrating it in 1134 C.E. holding a synod there. This was upon by Domnall O’ Brien, the King of Limerick into a more spacious church in 1169 C.E. In 1172 CE Henry II of England created the Synod of Cashel to regulate Church affairs, condemn abuses, and align with Roman Rites. The seat was filled from 1504-1523 C.E. by the Geraldine known as Maurice. In 1539 C.E. Henry VIII Tudor introduced the Anglican Reformation blackmailing the traders of the Suir, robbing their ships, and holding them hostage for ransom. This same time he promised to uphold the spiritual supremacy of the king denying the power of Ireland to the Bishop of Rome. Another Geraldine, Roland, became the archbishop by Qeen Mary for the Roman Catholics for 6 years, then followed rule by the Cistercian Abbot Maurice FitzGibbon replaced by James MacCaghwell through England’s Elizabeth I starting the Anglican religion at Cashel. This caused FitzGibbon to flee to France and Spain. After seeking a pardon from the Queen, he returned to Ireland only to get arrested, imprisoned in Cork, and finding death by 1578 C.E. When MacCaghwell passed, Queen Elizabeth promoted the Franciscan and Bishop of Down Miler MacGrath to the seat occupying the see for fifty-two years until his death in 1622 CE. By 1647 CE the town was destroyed during the Irish Confederate Wars by English Parliamentarian troops killing over 1,000 Irish Catholic soldiers, clerics, and civilians.

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Today Cashel is one of Ireland’s most popular tourist sites, mainly because of The Rock. It is also home to a plethora of other sites such as the GPA Bolton Library, The Heritage Center, Tipperary crafts, the Heritage town center, the Georgian St. John’s Cathedral, city walls, Cashel folk village, Hore abbey, the former Deanery, and the archbishop’s palace.

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Visit our adventures in Cashel here: 12.07.13: Cork, Mermaid’s Well, Rock of Cashel, Wrong Keys, Loughcrew.

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Redruth, Cornwall, England



Redruth

Cornwall, England * http://www.cornwalls.co.uk/Redruth/ *

“Resrudh” or “Redruth” is a town and civil parish of Cornwall, England with an approximate population of over 12,000 inhabitants. It lies along the route of the Old London to Land’s End trunk road (A30) and is 9 miles west of Truro and 18 miles northeast of Penzance. The name comes from the Cornish name “Rhyd-ruth” translating to “across a red river”. The first settlement that was Redruth is not where the town now lies, rather that would be the present Churchtown”. Redruth sits in a steeply wooded valley with Carn Brea on one side and Bullers Hill on the other. The area is rich in minerals and was popular for mining tin, copper, and lead. The first settlers stayed in this area by crossing a river and once they started extracting metal ores could have turned the river red … hence its name … “Across the River Red”. Redruth was overshadowed by neighboring towns in its early mining beginnings, but by the 18th century it hit a boom for the demand for copper by the Industrial Revolution and the creation of brass. Redruth then became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain. The 1880-1890’s the town gained a number of institutions including an a School of Mines and Art School, St. Andrew’s Church, the Free Library, and the Mining Exchange. 19th century saw a decline in the Mining industry and Britain began importing most of its copper ore. Many miners emigrated to mining industry in the Americas, Australia, and Africa. The last fully operational mine was the “South Crofty” at Pool between Redruth and Camborne which closed in 1998. The town has alot of shops, outlets, a covered market way, a multi-screen cinema, the Cornish Studies Centre, an old butter market, antique stores, a second hand book store, two supermarkets, Greens Newsagents, the Emporium, and the local Cash and Carry Jims. Cornwall’s first ILR Radio Station was founded in Redruth – “Pirate FM”. Redruth has become an important transportation hub with the railway station and numerous bus connections centering out of the city. It is also central to the main A30, A393, and A3047 roads. Redruth has also been home to Mick Fleetwood (of Fleetwood Mac), Harold Hayman, David Sturzaker, Charles Thomas, Kristin Scott Thomas, Luke Vibert, Rory McGrath, and Thomas Redruth.

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St. Just (Cornwall, England)

Botallack – St. Just Area of Cornwall:
Cornwall, England

Botallack:
This is an old mining village near St. Just that was featured in the “Poldark” television series. It hosts a pub named “The Queen’s Arms” and was home to many coppyer and tin mines. Its main mine, the Botallack Head Mine, closed down in 1895. The scenic ruins of the Crowns Mine hear here is a tourist hotspot for the mine and old engine houses. From 1907-1914 the mines were reworked for arsenic. The mines in the area are now protected by the National Trust. The area is also home to the mineral “Botallackite”.

St. Just:
Is the nearest town to the commercial resort “Land’s End”. It is located on the edge of the moors and close to the panoramic coastline about 8 miles from Penzance. It was once the center of tin mining and is now a tourist hotspot. The town is littered with granite cottages that are now vacation rentals. In the center of town is the Plain-an-Gwarry theater used for miracle plays in medieval times as well as the more recent Lafrowda Festival. A mile north of town is the “hooting carn or cairn” that is known to be haunted by a local group of witches led by Old Moll. It is believed underneath the cairn lies the Gump where demons fight and the Devil deposits lost souls. Its the town and civil parish that encompasses St. Just, Trewellard, Pendeen, and Kelynack. It has a population of approximately 4,690 (2001 census). The name for the town is after “St. Just” or “Justus” who was sent to England by Pope Gregory in 596 CE with Saint Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons. St. Just was consecrated Bishop in 604 and appointed to the see of Rochester by King Ethelbert of Kent. By 616 he was made Archbishop of Cantebury. The town served the mines of Boscaswell Downs, Balleswidden, Parknoweth, Boscean, Wheal Owles, Wheat boys, Levant, Botallack, and Geevor. It is a historical center for tourists wanting to learn about the history of Cornish mining.

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Pendeen (Cornwall, England)

Pendeen, Cornwall, England
Pendeen is a very panoramic and scenic coastal village on the Penwith peninsula in Cornwall, England. It is located 3 miles north of St. Just and 7 miles west of Penzance. Its a small village consisting of a community center, shop, post office, primary school, and few small businesses. The town is named after the Pendeen Lighthouse which is a mile away from the village on the coast (called the Pendeen Watch). “Pendeen” is also supposed to mean “headland of a fort”. The area was historically known for being a center for smuggling activities and mining. It was once a thriving tin and copper mining town. The town and its area is riddled with underground tunnels and passages. One of the most famous mining incidents in history occured in this area at the Levant Mine which in 1919 trapped over 30 miners. Tourists also come to Pendeen for its engine houses as it holds the oldest working beam engine in the UK. The hill that overlooks Pendeen is known as “The Carn” which is a site of a granite quarry that build the village church. This Church is the Church of St. John and was designed by parson Robert Aitken in 1851. Pendeen is also known for the Chun Castle, Chun Quoit, and its Geevor Tin Mine. It is believed Mining occured in this area for over 3,000 years. 2,000 years ago there is evidence of the Romans bringing Jews to Pendeen to work the mines. It is the beaches of Pendeen where the “Liberty” wreck can be found (or what is left of her).

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Madron, Cornwall, England

Madron, Cornwall, England
This small little parish village of granite cottages that is located near Penzance and served as one of Penzance’s notable water sources. It is approximately 3 km / 2 miles northwest of the Penzance town center. The town is most notorious for the location of the fabled Madron Well – a healing spring that was dedicated to Madron or Mabon – the Mother Goddess. The Parish and village is named after the Patron Saint “St. Mabyn” who is named after the Goddess Mabon or Madron. The population is roughly 1,500 inhabitants. Its believed that the area that is now the town began as a medieval habitation site. This is assessed by the finding of a couple of inscribed stones – one of which was found in the wall of the village church and the other as built into the Northern wall of the North Aisle, west of the entrance door of the church. Both are missing. Madron was recorded in the Domesday Book. Madron is also home to the Penzance Union Workhouse that was formed in June 1838 and used until 1948.

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St. Austell, Cornwall, UK

St. Austell, Cornwall, United Kingdom
A major town in the Cornwall region of England, St. Austell is a civil parish and town located on the south coast 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of Devon. It is Cornwall’s largest town with approximately 22,658 people (2001 census). As of this writing (2010) it is in the new parliamentary constituency of St. Austell and Newquay that was created by the Boundary Commission for England and contested this year for the first time. It is managed by the Cornwall Council. St. Austell was first referenced in John Leland’s itinerary stating “At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch”. Because of the China Clay was found in great quantity in St. Austell’s hills – the town boomed for clay mining and gave rapid growth to the town in the 19th-20th century when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced mines to close down or when it moved to clay mining. This also led to St. Austell becoming one of the ten most important commerial centers of Cornwall. The town church was originally dedicated to St. Austrol, a Breton Saint associated with St. Meven, but is now dedicated to the Holy Trinity. 1150 saw appropriation by the Priory of Tywardreath by the Cardinhams up until 1535. The town has many holy wells – the most popular being Menacuddle and Towan. Also the town hosts a Quaker burial ground at Tregongeeves outside the town on the Truro road.

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Liskeard, Cornwall, United Kingdom

Liskeard, United Kingdom
Located in Cornwall, England – Liskeard is a ancient stannary, civil parish, and market town located approximately 20 miles west of Plymouth and 14 miles west of the River Tamar and 12 miles east of Bodmin. It resides at the head of the Looe valley and hosts a population of over 8,600. Liskeard serves many of the resort areas of the southern Cornish coast as well as Bodmin Moor to the northwest. The town hosts a Norman castle that was built here after the Conquest. The area has always served a big role in agriculture. It also saw a pre-20th century boom in tin mining which became the key centre in the industry as well as for a stannary and coinage. The town is well known for a popular carnival every June.

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Newton Abbot, United Kingdom

Newton, Abbot

England /United Kingdom


‘Newton Abbot’, population estimated at 23,580 is a market town and civil parish on the River Teign in the Teignbridge District of Devon. The town boasts today of a racecourse and ‘Decoy’ their country park. Through history they were notorious for their ‘Cheese and Onion Fayre’ held from the 5th-7th of November honoring St. Leonard. It also became a town infamous for its Railway locomotive works and later a major steam engine shed, then a service yard for British Railways diesel locomotives. This industry though is now closed. Earliest history in the area show Neolithic people lived here in the Berry Wood Hill Fort near Bradley Manor that encompassed a contour hill of 11 acres. Milber Down camp was built around 1st c. BCE. Roman occupation later took hold as coins and pavement have been found. Norman motte-and-bailey castle remains are on Highweek Hill which had a village grow up and around the castle. 1247-1251 the ‘New Town of the Abbots (of Torre Abbey) were granted privilege to hold weekly markets on wednesdays. 1300 CE – the settlements were merged as “Newton Abbot” (taking the low ground) and “Newton Bushel” (taking the high ground) and because of its markets – became a thriving town with good income sources for the Abbots. Over 200 years Newton Bushel ran more annual fairs than Newton Abbot which led to establishment of mills and leather/wool trade becoming a big industry in the area. Bushel was also more of a convenient place to stay for travellers coming in and out of the area – so overshadowed Newton substantially in the earlier days. Torre Abbey dissolved in 1539 and was transfered to John Gaverock. 1583 Humphrey Gilbert, a local adventurer, landed at St. John’s in Newfoundland and claimed the area as a British colony – and developed fisheries. From 1600-1850 he developed a steady trade between Newton Abbot and the cod fisheries of Newfoundland. The area was also infamous for its ball clay workings from Bovey basin. Ball clay is a purer and more refined clay than most and used for bricks, tyres, porcelain, glossy magazines, medicines and toothpaste. These were used to make pipes in 1680 adding more industry to the area at that time. In 1846 the South Devon Railway reached the town changing it from a market town to a base for the industry. Newton Abbot’s station was also instrumental to Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s Teignmouth / Newton Abbot section for experimentation with atmospheric railways. Its current station was rebuilt in 1926. Industries in the area moved their headquarters along the railway – including timber yards, brass foundries, engineering works. This caused population increase from 1600+ in 1801 to nearly 12,500+ in 1901. The town got a new look with terraced streets and attractive villas that sprang up parallel with the industry. The town was damaged during WWII air raids and a severe flood in 1979, but has since rebuilt from damages.

 

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Newton/Abbey, United Kingdom

Newton / Abbey
United Kingdom

Newton is a parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England. From 1559-1706 Newton was represented by two members of Parliament in the House of Commons as well as 1707-1800 in the Parliament of Great Britain, 1801-1832 in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and 1885-1983 by one member as a county constituency. Newton has been labelled a rotten borough from its beginnings as “barely more than a village and entirely dominated by the local landowner that is first return of members described it bluntly as ‘the borough of Sir Thomas Langton, knight, baron of Newton within his Fee of Markerfylde'”. This was abolished by 1831 when the population reached 2,139 with 285 houses and the right to vote was exercised by all freeholders of property in the borough valued at 40 shillings or more. In practice however, the townsmen of Newton never had a say in choosing their representatives – as the owners of the majority of the qualifying freeholds – exercised total control. During most of the Elizabethan Period, Langton allowed the Duchy of Lancaster to nominate many of the members which may have been a quid pro quo for Newton’s being enfranchised. Later patrons could regard its parliamentary seats as their personal property. Langton’s heir sold the manor to the Fleetwood family in 1594 which included the right of ‘the nomination, election, and appointment’ of the 2 burgesses representing the borough in Parliament which is an infamous example, and first recorded instance, of the right to elect MPs being bought and sold. Eventually passed on to the Leghs who own it to this day. With the Great Reform Act of 1832, Newton was already the most notorious of all England’s pocket boroughs, and it became one of the 56 boroughs to be disenfranchised.

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Exeter, United Kingdom



Exeter, United Kingdom

One of Devon’s historical centers, it is the ceremonial county of Devon. Residing on the River Exe (37 miles NE of Plymouth and 70 miles SW of Bristol). The name “Exeter” comes from latin ‘Exeter, Isca Dumnoniorum (‘Isca of the Dumnones’)’ that suggests Celtic origins as this important town ‘oppidum’ on the banks of the ‘Exe’ River existed before the Roman city foundations of 50 CE. There is a place in Exeter where a dry ridge of land ends in a spur overlooking the river full of fish with fertile land nearby that attracted many people here in the past as a site for habitation – so its theorized the area was settled very early. Early coins found in the area show a settlement existed here trading with Mediterranean culture as early as 250 BCE. Isca is derived from the Brythonic Celtic word for “Flowing Water” which was given to the “Exe” clearly showing the modern Welsh names for Exeter (Caer-wysg) and the River Usk (Afon Wysg) contribute to the name’s origins. Romans gave the name “Isca Dumnoniorum” to distinguish it from “Isca Augusta” or mdoern Caerleon. Alot of Roman remains are left in the city including the city wall and roman baths complex even though buried from the tourist’s eyes. Over 1,000 Roman coins have been discovered in the city leading to the belief of a heavy emphasis on trading in the city’s early history. No coins dated after 380 CE were found – so that evidentally changed through time. This was the southwestern most Roman fortified settlement in Britain. Romans left the city in early 5th c. CE and Exeter’s history vanishes for about 270 years until 680 CE when a document about St. Boniface surfaces stating he was educated at the Abbey in Exeter. Saxons came to Exeter after defeating the Britons at the ‘Battle of Peonnum’ in Somerset at 658 CE afterwhich it is presumed the Saxons and the Britons lived together in the city under their own laws. 876 CE (Exeter was called ‘Escanceaster’ at this time) was attacked and taken over by the Danes. 877 CE – Alfred the Great drove the Danes out of town until they re-sieged the city in 893 CE. 928 King Athelstan ensured the Roman defense walls of the city were completely repaired and then drove out all the Britons from the city sending them beyond the River Tamar and fixing the river as the boundary of Devonshire. 1001 the Danes were pushed out again, but plundered Exeter in 1003 CE as they were mistakenly allowed into the city by the French reeve of Emma of Normandy who had been granted the city as part of her marriage dowry to Aethelred the Unready. 1067 AD – saw a rebellion against William the Conqueror who laid siege and after 18 days accepted the city’s surrender including an oath from him not to harm the city or increase its ancient tribute. William set out to construct the Rougemont Castle to ensure the city’s compliance in the future. Saxon properties were then transferred to Norman hands, and after the 1072 CE Bishop Leofric death – Norman Osbern FitzOsbern became successor of the city. 1136 saw more siege after the three wells in the castle ran dry and the large supplies of wine in the garrison were exhausted from being used as a replacement for the non-existent water. 1213 the Weekly Medieval markets came to be hosting up to three markets per week, seven annual fairs, all of which continue to this day. 12th century its Cathedral became Anglican at the time of the 16th century Reformation. 1537 the city was made a county corporate. 1549 it successfully withstood a month-long siege by the Prayer Book rebels. Exeter was originally a parliamentary town in the English Civil War but was captured by Royalists in September of 1643. During this time it became economically powerful with a strong trade of wool because the area was ‘more fertile and better inhabited than that passed over the preceding day’ according to Count Lorenzo Magalotti when he visited and stated there were over 30,000 employed inhabitants as part of the wool and cloth industries. Celie Fiennes account of her visit stated much the same that Exeter was popular for trade and incredible quantity of merchandise holds. Business declined during the Industrial Revolution when steam power replaaced water in the 19th century and Exeter was too far from coal/iron to develop any further. Extensive canal redevelopments took place to expand Exeter’s economy. The first rail to arrive was the Bristol and Exeter Railway opened up at St. Davids on the western edge in 1844. South Devon Railway extended service to Plymouth, as well as the London and Southwestern railway coming in 1860 to create alternate routes to London. 1832 the area was struck with an epidemic of ‘pestilence cholera’. Exeter became rampaged by the German Luftwaffe in WWII with a total of 18 raids from 1940-1942 flattening most of the city center and a good portion of its historic structures. The 1950’s saw a massive rebuilding but very little attempt to preserve its ancient heritage. By the late 1900’s and early 2000’s – Exeter became a significant tourist trade city in England but is not dominated by tourism. Population in 2001 was estimated at 111,076. In May 2008 there was an attempted terrorist attack on the Giraffe cafe in Princesshay. Exeter is one of the top ten places for a successful and profitable business to be based. With good transportation links, merging St. David’s railway, Exeter Centeral railway station, M5 motorway, and Exeter International Airport – connectivity to the world is done here. The town is also notorious for backpackers.

 

 

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Manitou Springs, Colorado

Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.
Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado.

Manitou Springs, Colorado
A beautiful and charming little resort town of approximately 4,980 citizens (census 2000), nestled at the base of Pikes Peak, just 15 minutes west of Colorado Springs, Colorado is Manitou Springs that is approximately 3 miles square. The town is a big part of “Colorado Springs” and both towns are referred to as “The Springs” by its inhabitants. Manitou is named after the enchanting naturally carbonated springs that well up from one of several fountains throughout the town, most of which have drinking fountains for the public to fill up their water bottles in, each with a distinct flavor and effect. The area historically was an attractant as a spa and healing resort for those suffering from tuberculosis as the healthy fresh mountain air, bubbling springs, and healing minerals were believed to be quite a successful cure for individual ailments. It became such a hotspot that the inhabiting Ute Indians were pushed out by the white settlers and vacation resorts, cabins, cottages, and even a castle was built to take advantage of the Springs. The Utes were believed to curse the area so that no ‘white’ business would ever succeed. In the 1970’s, Woodland Park that is located up Ute Pass approximately 19 miles west, built a sewage treatment plant on top of the fault line which made most of the Springs undrinkable during most of the 1980’s until corrected by the 1990’s. The area is quite a tourist resort and attraction for the area for antique stores, metaphysics, Christianity, Pike’s Peak Railway, Briarhurst Manor, The Manitou Cliff Dwellings, Cave of the Winds, the North Pole, Iron Springs Chateau & Melodrama, Garden of the Gods, and Miramount Castle. In addition, Manitou is known for fabulously crazy festivals such as the Emma Crawford Coffin Races, Cake Tosses, Wine Festivals, Carnival, Gumbo cook-offs, and many other events. An amazing must see hotspot. Rating: 5 stars out of 5.

Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.
Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. .

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.
Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

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Pahoa, Big Island, Hawaii

Pahoa
A little town in Hawaii that as the locals describe it “hasn’t stepped out of the 60’s”. The town is named after the Hawaiian word meaning “dagger” or “knife”. It is the resting ground of the Pele and Hi’iaka myths. In a way, it’s Hawaii’s Big Island’s Woodstock. Most of the population walk or bike to work. Relaxing little town at the southern most plae of Puna. Its a stopping area enroute to Lava Trees State Monument, Kapoho, MacKenzie State Park, Pohoiki, Kehena nude beach, and Kalapana. Its located at 19°30?4?N 154°57?11?W? / ?19.50111°N 154.95306°W? and is home to approximately 962 people (2000 census). The soil in the area is highly volcanic, and rather new having generated by lava flows within the last 125-500 years. It has a secondary school, a high school, and an intermediate school, all located on Puna road.


Pahoa, Big Island

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Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii


Kalapana Village, Big Island, Hawaii

Kalapana, Big Island, Hawaii
Now just a little tourist stop-off and memorial, Kalapana was once a town in the region of the Puna District. It was demolished in the 1990 K?lauea lava flow from the Pu?u ???? vent which destroyed and partly buried much of the Kalapana Gardens and nearby Royal Gardens subdivision that Kalepana consisted of. In addition, the nearby towns of Kaim? and Kaim? Bay were also destroyed by this lava flow and now lie buried beneath more than 50 feet of lava which makes up Hawaii’s newest coastline and is the area of Hawaii that is growing daily. Most of the actual town has been cut off as it lies buried under the lava and is mainly accessed by very few locals who live there utilizing 4-wheel drive vehicles to get in and out. There is a bed and breakfast running in the town, a cafe, and a memorial garden.


Kalapana Village, Big Island, Hawaii

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Alta, Colorado (Ghost Town)

Alta Ghost Town
Alta (near Telluride), Colorado
Elevation: ca. 11,800 ft.
The remnants of this ghost town still remain, some as little as heaps of wood, others as frames, and some as full structures. Alta was a small mining town between Telluride and Rico housing a population of a few hundred. Gold was discovered here first in 1878 by Jack Mann, then population trends alternated up through World War II. An aerial tramway moved the ore to the mill below. This was the first mine to use AC current. The Mill burnt down in 1948. Some famous residents were George Westinghouse, Nikola Tesla, and others who made the town what it became. Through the years, the remnants of the town were vandalized after the last residents left and most of what remains has been destroyed. The land has been purchased by a developer who plans to pave the route up to it selling lots in and around Alta Lakes further up the road. Visited on 5/31/09.

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Telluride, Colorado

Telluride, Colorado
Telluride is a great little mountainous ski-resort village that was once a mining town. Population of 2,221 in 2000. Telluride was a former silver mining camp on the san Miguel River in the San Juan Mountains nestled in a box canyon of the Four Corners region of Colorado with steep forested mountains and cliffs surrounding the town. Elevation 8,750 feet. At the head of the canyon is the amazing Bridal Veil Falls and speckled all along the valley are numerous weathered ruins of old mines and operations. Telluride offers a free gondola that you can take up to the mountain-tops for a great panoramic view of the valley. Telluride is notoriously known for its pop culture as it has been the backdrop for several tv commercials, home to an international film festival, and referred to in songs by Glenn Frey, Kate Wolf, Tim McGraw, Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, Josh Gracin, and in an essay by Edward Abbey. Hotspot of activity for skiiers and hikers, it’s a paradise for outdoor enthusiasts. Only one road reaches the town year round with two off-road routes for mid summer. Gold was first discovered in the region in 1858. The first claim was made by John Fallon in the Marshal Basin above Telluride. This sparked settling the area in 1878 with the formation of the town. Originally called “Columbia” but later changed to Telluride after one of the minerals found in the area called Tellurium. Telluride’s mines are rich in zinc, lead, copper, silver, and gold. Butch Cassidy hung out here in 1889 and robbed the San Miguel Valley Bank that year making history as his first major recorded crime. Local residents and common visitors have included John Denver, Bob Dylan, Daryl Hannah, Jerry Seinfeld, Oprah Winfrey and Tom Cruise. I found the town extremely charming and in some quarters rustic, even though it had its touristy yuppie overwhelming flair. Definitely one of my favorite towns in Colorado. A must visit.

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Bradford, England


Bradford, England * City Park

Bradford, West Yorkshire, England
population: 293,717

Long considered to be the curry capital of Britain, Bradford is also well known as an industrial city known for its textiles and especially it’s wool trade. Now surpassed by the curry market, just about every street around the city center has at least one curry house. In Britain, the use of “curry” is a common term for most Asian foods that contain “curry” but is often just used for reference to “Indian food” whilst in other parts of the world, a curry is a dish that contains curry and could refer to specific dishes that are part of Indian food, Thai food, etc. Bradford is estimated to have about 200+ Asian restaurants with more per head of population than anywhere else in Britain. The first curry house appeared in Bradford in the 1950’s when the city saw an influx of Asian workers for the textile mills. More information about Bradford Curry. Bradford is 9 miles west of Leeds but with suburbs so close the two cities actually merge into one another – and industrial Bradford is Leed’s closest neighbour and distinctly it’s poorer cousin as they will tell you in Leeds. According to JB Priestley (1894-1984) Bradford has a ‘kind of ugliness that could not only be tolerated but often enjoyed’. Bradford is most well known in the tourist circles for its annual Bradford festival that is held at the end of June which is a colorful celebration of Asian music and dance called Mela.


Bradford Exchange, Bradford, England

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