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Ohio, USA

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Ohio, USA

The State of Ohio is central to the Midwestern states of the Great Lakes with its capital as Columbus. The state is bordered by the Ohio River in the south and the state of Kentucky, Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the East, Indiana to the West, West Virginia to the Southeast, and Michigan to the Northwest. The border with Michigan was changed due to the Toledo War to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the Maumee River’s mouth. It is the 34th largest state in the United States as per land area, the tenth most densely populated, and the seventh most populated. The state was named after the river of the same name, which came from the Seneca tribe’s word “ohi:yo'” meaning “great river” or “good river”. It has the nickname of being the “Buckeye state” and its residents “buckeyes” after the numerous buckeye trees in the state. The state was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803.

Geologically, Ohio features glaciated till plains minus the Great Black Swamp that is a extremely flat area in the Northwest. The glaciation from the east an southeast was the Allegheny Plateau, then another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau causing rugged hills and forests. The rest of Ohio is low relief. The ruggest southeast stretches as a bow-like arc towards the Ohio river from the West Virginia Panhandle. There are several major rivers running through Ohio such as the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Scioto River, and Muskingum River most of which drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean through Lake Erie and St. Lawrence River. Rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Ohio has a humid continental climate through most of the region except the extreme southern counties of the Bluegrass region that are defined as humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid throughout the state with winters ranging from cool to cold. Precipitation is moderate year-round though bouts of severe weather are not uncommon such as tornados, snowstorms, rain storms, and sleet. There have been earthquakes as well through the state.

The first inhabitants of the region were nomadic Native American tribes and peoples dating to as early as 13,000 B.C.E. The early nomads disappeared from historical record by 1,000 B.C.E. From 1,000 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E. the Adena culture dominated with semi-permanent villages with domestication of plants including sunflowers, squash, and potentially corn. The remainder was hunting and gathering moin into more settled and complex villages. The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County is one of the most superior remnants of the culture.

The Hopewell evolved from the Adena who also conducted mound-building activities creating complex, large sophisticated earthworks throughout the region. Trade became a major industry creating a large network amongst the early peoples of the region. The Hopewell vanished around 600 C.E. potentially from the rise of the Mississippian Culture Siouan-speaking people from the Plains and East Coast claim to be their ancestors living here until the 13th century C.E. It is believed that Ohio has three distinct prehistoric cultures: (1) the Fort Ancient People, (2) the Whittlesey Focus People, and (3) the Monongahela Culture. All three of these cultures disappeared by the 17th century with European contact and the diseases the Europeans brought with them.

The early inhabitants saw aggression and warfare with the Iroquois Confederation out of the area now defined as New York. The Beaver Wars of the mid-17th century saw the Iroquios claiing much of the area of Ohio for hunting and beaver-trapping. Epidemics from European contact also devastated the native populations by late 17th century. Towards the 18th century, the Algonquian peoples inhabited the region subsisting on agriculture and seasonal hunting. They became part of the larger global economy through the fur trade with Europeans and settlers.

With European contact and settlement, trade increased and Tobacco plantations were established. The Iroquoian Petun, Erie, Chonnonton, Wyandot, Mingo Seneca, and Iroquois Confederacy were the indigenous nations remaining from the 18th century onwards. Numerous massacres of the indigenous took place such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten, and Pontiac’s Rebellion school massacre until the remaining Native populations were pushed out especially with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

The French settled and colonized the area with a system of trading posts regulating the fur trade. France and Great Britain fought over the region in the French and Indian War as well as in Europe during the Seven Year’s War. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had the French cede control and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Come the American Revolution much of that changed. Control of the region went to the United States.

Ohio’s industry is based on coal mines, cargo transport, Lake Erie’s coastline (approx. 312 miles) for cargo ports, and manufacturing plants. Early industry collapses and economic despair brought great poverty to the area in the Appalachian Region – propelling the 1965 Congress Appalachian Regional Development Act addressing the concerns including over 29 counties as part of Appalachia. Ohio was devastated by the 1913 Great Dayton Flood when the Miami River watershed flooded destroying much of Dayton.

    Cities/Towns/Villages:

  • Akron
  • Canton
  • Center of the World
  • Cincinatti
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Cuyahoga Falls
  • Dayton
  • Elyria
  • Euclid
  • Hamilton
  • Kettering
  • Lakewood
  • Loraine
  • Mentor
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Newton Falls
  • Parma
  • Springfield
  • Toledo
  • Warren
  • Youngstown

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State of Washington

Hoh Rainforerst (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26103) - Olympic National Forest and Park: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26099. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Oisin Rhymer, and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Hoh Rainforerst (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26103) – Olympic National Forest and Park: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26099.

Washington State

Named after the great President George Washington, the State of Washington is one of the largest states in the Pacific Northwest and is located north of Oregon, south of British Columbia, and west of Idaho. Once ceded by Britain in 1846 during land and boundary disputes with Oregon, the Washington Territory The state was created from the western part of the Washington territory became official in 1889 as part of the Union. The capital of Washington is the city of Olympia. The state often gets confused with Washington DC, and designated as such to be called Washington State or State of Washington. It is the 18th largest state in the U.S. and boasts of 71,362 square miles with over 7 million residents. 60% of that 7 million population live within the Seattle Metropolitan area. The State of Washington relies on the economies of lumber, ship building, plane building, information technology, software design, air crafts, missiles, food production, agriculture, chemicals, metals, and machinery. The state is abundant with Ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce, Douglas fir, hemlock, larch, and cedar. It is also a major supplier of apples, hops, pears, red raspberries, spearmint oil, sweet cherries, apricots, asparagus, dry edible peas, grapes, lentils, peppermint oil, and potatoes. It is also a major harvester of salmon, halibut, and bottom fish.

The territory and then now state of Washington was heavily populated by Native Americans from the origin of humanity for the continent. A long age-old story is told with the complexities of one of the oldest and most complete human skeletons to be found in North America called “Kennewick Man”. The first peoples here, were assembled as tribes who resided in the region, hunted, fished, and settled. They are most notable culturally for their carvings such as found in ornate carved canoes, masks, and totem poles. The indigenous subsisted on fishing – especially Salmon and whales. The peoples of the region were devastated by the arrival of European explorers and Euro-American settlers who in the 1770’s brought with them the Small Pox epidemic. The first European explorer recorded in the region was the Spanish Explorer Captain Don Bruno de Hecata who landed on the coast with the two-ship flotilla Santiago and Sonora in 1775. Hecata boasted discovering the region and claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound under the name of Spain by means of the Treaty of Tordesillas. He thereby called the Pacific a “Spanish lake” thereby justifying that all shores belonged to the Spanish Empire.

Captain James Cook sailed into the region by 1778 sighting Cape Flattery within the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca which had yet to be discovered. In 1787 the Imperial Eagle and its captain Charles William Barkley discovered and sailed through the Strait. The Straits were then explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791. George Vancouver finished off the mapping and explorations in 1792. The Spanish exclusively claimed the lands during the British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790, yet the region was infested by traders, hunters, fishermen, and explorers from all around the world making boundaries, land claims, and territorial disputes rampant. Captain Robert Gray discovered the mouth of the Columbia River and named it after his ship. Then Lewis and Clark took their expedition along the Columbia River on October 10, 1805. Great Britain laid claim to the territory after explorer David Thompson took his voyage down the Columbia and camped at the confluence of the Snake River on July 9, 1811 settling and building a trading post for the Northwest Company. The area was occupied by both Britain and the United States as a “joint occupancy of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean” within the Anglo-American Convention of 1811. They thereby established the 49th parallel as the International Boundary west from “Lake of the Woods” to the “Rocky Mountains”. Spain gave up their rights North of the 42nd Parallel to the United States. Territorial disputes continued between the British and the Americans for several decades, but the Americans heavily settled the territory pushing the British north towards Canada. Numerous groups of Missionaries infiltrated the region by 1836 bringing thousands of emigrants across to the territory by means of the Oregon Trail. Britain finally ceded claims to the lands south of the 49th Parallel to the United States during the June 15, 1846 “Oregon Treaty”. The most infamous of the Missionary encampments of these Missionaries was Marcus Whitman’s “Waiilatpu” settlement near Walla Walla in southeastern Washington. He acted as a “Medicine Man” to these settlers as well as the indigenous of the reason. But once European diseases inflicted the Native populations and Whitman couldn’t stop it, he was blamed for sickening the Natives. The indigenous murdered him and 12 other setters during the Whitman massacre of 1847. This caused conflicts between the Euro-American settlers and the Native peoples leading to the Cayuse War.

Geologically Washington State is a incredible treasure-trove of activity and resources. The region is home to numerous dormant and active Volcanoes such as Glacier Peak, Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helen’s, and Mount Adams. To the far west are the Olympic Mountains hosting a temperate rain forest while the tallest Mountain in the State in Mount Rainier. Most of the western region is a marine West Coast climate with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns, springs, and relatively dry summers. The Eastern part of Washington state is relatively dry with large areas of arid deserts and semi-arid steppes.

Cities:

Activities/Attractions/Events:

Lodging:

Roads:


  • Interstate 84
  • Washington State Road 14

    Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
    Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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