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Ohio, USA

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Ohio, USA

The State of Ohio is central to the Midwestern states of the Great Lakes with its capital as Columbus. The state is bordered by the Ohio River in the south and the state of Kentucky, Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the East, Indiana to the West, West Virginia to the Southeast, and Michigan to the Northwest. The border with Michigan was changed due to the Toledo War to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the Maumee River’s mouth. It is the 34th largest state in the United States as per land area, the tenth most densely populated, and the seventh most populated. The state was named after the river of the same name, which came from the Seneca tribe’s word “ohi:yo'” meaning “great river” or “good river”. It has the nickname of being the “Buckeye state” and its residents “buckeyes” after the numerous buckeye trees in the state. The state was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803.

Geologically, Ohio features glaciated till plains minus the Great Black Swamp that is a extremely flat area in the Northwest. The glaciation from the east an southeast was the Allegheny Plateau, then another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau causing rugged hills and forests. The rest of Ohio is low relief. The ruggest southeast stretches as a bow-like arc towards the Ohio river from the West Virginia Panhandle. There are several major rivers running through Ohio such as the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Scioto River, and Muskingum River most of which drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean through Lake Erie and St. Lawrence River. Rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Ohio has a humid continental climate through most of the region except the extreme southern counties of the Bluegrass region that are defined as humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid throughout the state with winters ranging from cool to cold. Precipitation is moderate year-round though bouts of severe weather are not uncommon such as tornados, snowstorms, rain storms, and sleet. There have been earthquakes as well through the state.

The first inhabitants of the region were nomadic Native American tribes and peoples dating to as early as 13,000 B.C.E. The early nomads disappeared from historical record by 1,000 B.C.E. From 1,000 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E. the Adena culture dominated with semi-permanent villages with domestication of plants including sunflowers, squash, and potentially corn. The remainder was hunting and gathering moin into more settled and complex villages. The Great Serpent Mound in Adams County is one of the most superior remnants of the culture.

The Hopewell evolved from the Adena who also conducted mound-building activities creating complex, large sophisticated earthworks throughout the region. Trade became a major industry creating a large network amongst the early peoples of the region. The Hopewell vanished around 600 C.E. potentially from the rise of the Mississippian Culture Siouan-speaking people from the Plains and East Coast claim to be their ancestors living here until the 13th century C.E. It is believed that Ohio has three distinct prehistoric cultures: (1) the Fort Ancient People, (2) the Whittlesey Focus People, and (3) the Monongahela Culture. All three of these cultures disappeared by the 17th century with European contact and the diseases the Europeans brought with them.

The early inhabitants saw aggression and warfare with the Iroquois Confederation out of the area now defined as New York. The Beaver Wars of the mid-17th century saw the Iroquios claiing much of the area of Ohio for hunting and beaver-trapping. Epidemics from European contact also devastated the native populations by late 17th century. Towards the 18th century, the Algonquian peoples inhabited the region subsisting on agriculture and seasonal hunting. They became part of the larger global economy through the fur trade with Europeans and settlers.

With European contact and settlement, trade increased and Tobacco plantations were established. The Iroquoian Petun, Erie, Chonnonton, Wyandot, Mingo Seneca, and Iroquois Confederacy were the indigenous nations remaining from the 18th century onwards. Numerous massacres of the indigenous took place such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten, and Pontiac’s Rebellion school massacre until the remaining Native populations were pushed out especially with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

The French settled and colonized the area with a system of trading posts regulating the fur trade. France and Great Britain fought over the region in the French and Indian War as well as in Europe during the Seven Year’s War. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had the French cede control and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Come the American Revolution much of that changed. Control of the region went to the United States.

Ohio’s industry is based on coal mines, cargo transport, Lake Erie’s coastline (approx. 312 miles) for cargo ports, and manufacturing plants. Early industry collapses and economic despair brought great poverty to the area in the Appalachian Region – propelling the 1965 Congress Appalachian Regional Development Act addressing the concerns including over 29 counties as part of Appalachia. Ohio was devastated by the 1913 Great Dayton Flood when the Miami River watershed flooded destroying much of Dayton.

    Cities/Towns/Villages:

  • Akron
  • Canton
  • Center of the World
  • Cincinatti
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Cuyahoga Falls
  • Dayton
  • Elyria
  • Euclid
  • Hamilton
  • Kettering
  • Lakewood
  • Loraine
  • Mentor
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Newton Falls
  • Parma
  • Springfield
  • Toledo
  • Warren
  • Youngstown

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State of Washington

Hoh Rainforerst (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26103) - Olympic National Forest and Park: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26099. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 26, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Eadaoin Bineid and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
Hoh Rainforerst (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26103) – Olympic National Forest and Park: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=26099.

Washington State

One of the largest states in the Pacific Northwest, is the State of Washington located north of Oregon, south of British Columbia, and west of Idaho. It was named after the late U.S. President George Washington. The state was created from the western part of the Washington territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 during the Oregon boundary disputes and became official in 1889 as part of the Union. The capital of Washington is the city of Olympia. The state often gets confused with Washington DC, and designated as such to be called Washington State or State of Washington. It is the 18th largest state in the U.S. and boasts of 71,362 square miles with over 7 million residents. 60% of that 7 million population live within the Seattle Metropolitan area. The State of Washington relies on the economies of lumber, ship building, plane building, information technology, software design, aircrafts, missiles, food production, agriculture, chemicals, metals, and machinery. The state is abundant with poderosa pine, white pine, spruce, douglas fir, hemlock, larch, and cedar. It is also a major supplier of apples, hops, pears, red raspberries, spearmint oil, sweet cherries, apricots, asparagus, dry edible peas, grapes, lentils, peppermint oil, and potatoes. It is also a major harvester of salmon, halibut, and bottomfish.

Washington has a long indigenous history, beginning with the perplexities of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human skeletons to have been found in North America. The region that is now Washington state had many various Native American tribes residing and hunting here, notable for ornate carve canoes, masks, and totem poles. Their prodominant subsistence was on salmon fishing and/or whale hunting. In the 1770s, Euro-American settlers decimated their populations with the small pox epidemic. The first recorded European landing on its coasts was that of Spanish explorer Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775 with the Santiago, a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He boastfully claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince WIlliam Sound for Spain under the Treaty of Tordesillas, making the Pacific a “Spanish Lake” with all its shores belonging to the Spanish Empire. In 1778, Captain James Cook made sight of Cape Flattery within the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which he had not discovered. The Straight was discovered by Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle in 1787. These were later first explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, finalized by the exploits of George Vancouver in 1792. While the Spanish made claims of exclusivity during the British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790, traders and explorers from around the world infested the area. American captain Robert Gray discovered the mouth of the Columbia River naming it after his ship. Lewis and Clark made their expeditio through on October 10, 1805. The country was claimed by Great Britain via explorer David Thompson on his voyage down the Columbia while camped at the confluence of the Snake River during July 9, 1811 establishing ground for the Northwest Company’s site for a trading post. Britain and the United States shared a join occupancy of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean within their Anglo-American Convention of 181, establishing the 49th parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Spain ceded their rights north the 42nd Parallel to the United States. Negotiations had a rough history between the U.S. and England, disputes were highly contested, lasting for several decades. American settlers poured into the region pushing much of the British out naturally. Britain eventually ceded all claims to lands couth of the 49th parallel to the United States during the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. In 1836 the region was affected by groups of missionaries establishing several missions such as Marcus Whitman’s Waiilatpu settlement in southeastern Washington state near Walla Walla that helped the Oregon Trail for thousands of emigrants to cross over. Whitman acted as a Medicine Man for the settlers and the Native Americans, until the Native Americans fell ill to many European based diseases that Whitman couldn’t stop, and he was held personally accountable for. Tribes murdered him and 12 other settlers during the Whitman massacre of 1847 causing the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.

Washington is hoe to several active and/or dormant volcanoes which are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier is the tallest mountain in the state. The Olympic Mountains are far west in Washington on the Olympic Peninsula hosting a temperate rainforest. Most of the state possesses a marine west coast climate with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers. Eastern Washington however is relatively dry and has large areas of semi-arid steppes and arid deserts.

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Roads:


  • Interstate 84
  • Washington State Road 14

    Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.
    Gig Harbor, Washington ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=28461); Exploring the Olympic Peninsula. Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf, Lady Etain, and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 24, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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