Cave of the Cats (Roscommon, Ireland)

Oweynagat Cave – Cave of the Cats – Gateway to the Underworld and the Morrigan’s Palace.

Oweynagat Cave – Cave of the Cats
– Gateway to the Underworld and the Morrigan’s Palace. Rathcrohan / Rosscommon, Ireland
GPS: 53.79677, -8.31038
Article/Research by Thomas Baurley/Leaf McGowan/Technogypsie Productions, 10 October 2017

One of my most favorite sites in Ireland is the “Cave of the Cats” underneath the realm of “Rathcrohan“. It is officially called “Oweynagat” and pronounced “Owen-ne-gatt”.
The Cave is also labelled “Uaimh na gCat”, Irish translating to “Cave of the Cats”. When I first visited this site we had a tremendously hard time finding it. We found where it was supposed to be, but it lay behind fencing on a farmer’s field. We knocked on the farmer’s door, and there was no answer. A neighbor saw us, asked what we were doing and who we were, and he showed us the entrance, giving us permission to enter. It was a small hole under some Fairy thorn trees. The Site is actually a natural narrow limestone cave that hosts a man-made souterrain at its entrance. This is seen by all as the official entrance to the Otherworld and home to the Morrigan or Medh. In the Medieval Period of Ireland, it was labeled “Ireland’s Gate to Hell”. It is a particular sacred site for the Pagan holiday and festival of “Samhain” or Halloween.

It is said that during the Feast of Samhain, the dead, their God/desses, and Spirits, would rise from their graves and walk the Earth. This cave is one of the main places where Spirits and the dead associated with the Fae and/or the Morrigan, would re-surface including creatures, monsters, and the un-dead. There exists an Irish legend based off the “Adventures of Nera” where a warrior is challenged to tie a twig around the ankle of a condemned man on Samhain eve, after agreeing to get him some water would discover strange houses and wouldn’t find water until the third house. Upon returning him back to captivity would witness Rathcroghan’s royal buildings destroyed by the spirits. After this he must follow the fairy host to the Sidhe where he meets a woman who tells him the vision he saw will happen a year from now unless his mortal comrades are warned. He leaves the Sidhe and informs Ailill of his vision who destroys the Sidhe in response.

Some believe the “síd” or the Sidhe of this tale is either the Mound of Rathcroghan or Oweynagat, the Cave of the Cats. It makes the most sense that the Cave of the Cats is where the destructive creatures and fae emerged. There was a triple-headed monster called the Ellen Trechen that went on a rampage across the country before being killed by Amergin, father of Conal Cernach. There have been tales of small red birds emerging from the cave withering every plant they breathed on before being hunted to their death by the Red Branch. There is also legends of herds of pigs with similar powers of decay emerging from the cave until hunted and killed by Ailill and Medb.

The name itself, “Oweynagat” is believed to refer to the Magical wild cats featured in the tale of “Bricriu’s Feast” that emerge from this cave to attack the three Ulster warriors before being tamed by Cúchulainn. Some also claim that the cave was named after Irusan, the King of the Cats, who is featured in Irish fairy tales and hailed from a cave near Clonmacnoise (her home). Another tale from the 18th century CE tells of a woman trying to catch a runaway cow that fell into this cave (nevermind the entrance being too small) and followed it into this cave. It is said the cow and woman emerged miles away in County Sligo, near Keshcorran. There is also a legend of a woman that was told to have killed a monster cat in this cave, turning the woman into a great warrior, and this is why its called “Oweynagat”, Cave of the Cats.

The Birthplace of Medb

It is also believed that this cave is the actual physical birthplace for Queen Medb. The legend states that the Fairy Queen/Goddess Étain who was fleeing her human husband with her fairy lover Midir came here. Midir wanted to visit a relative named Sinech (the large breasted one) who lived in the cave. Within the cave was said to be a great otherworldly palace where a maid servant named Crochan Crogderg (“Blood Red Cup”) lived, and she had granted Midir and Etain entrance. It was here that Crochan was believed to have given birth to a daughter named “Medb“.

The Entrance

Nestled under a fairy tree in a farmer’s field (private property) is a small opening that really only looks large enough for a house cat to fit through. But if a human gets down on their hands and knees, can shimmy into this small hole, they will be presented with a small chamber that connects to a passageway that continually increases to a massive tunnel wider and higher than one could fathom. At the inner lintel of this entrance is an Ogham inscription that bears the words “VRAICCI…MAQI MEDVVI” translating to “FRAECH” and “SON OF MEDB”. Some also translate this to mean “The Pillar of Fraech son of Madb”. This is also seen as the birthplace of Medb. A second ogham inscription, barely visible, reads “QR G SMU” but has not been translated. This beginning chamber is actually a man-made souterrain at the entrance to a natural narrow limestone cave. The souterrain was originally contained within an earthen mound that was later damaged by a road construction project in the 1930’s. The souterrain is made of drystone walling, orthostats, lintels, and stones that measure approximately 10.5 meters from the entrance to the natural cave’s opening.

The Tunnel

After crawling on one’s hands and feet, the passage increases in width and height, eventually one can stand up, and eventually the tunnel becomes wide and tall enough that a small Giant could move through it. This is the passage of the Fae, and leads to the Morrigan’s Lair. As one continues down, they’ll find a caved in shamble that is behind a muddy pool of water. If one successfully climbs up and over it, the passage continues to another area that is caved in. Apparently workers on the surface planted a utility pole that collapsed this section of the tunnel. Beyond this is believed to be the Entrance to the Otherworld, and the Morrigan’s Lair. This is actually a natural limestone cave that has been mapped approximately 37 meters deep.

The Morrigan

The Queen of the Dark Fae, the Goddess of the Underworld, of Darkness, and Battle, rules the world of the Fae from this place. It is believed that every Samhain, she is pulled on a chariot out of the Cave of the Cats by a one-legged chestnut horse alongside various creatures such as those mentioned above. Some also say on occasion she leaves the cave with a cow, guided by a giant with a forked staff, to give to the Bull of Cúailgne. She is also known to take the bull of a woman named Odras who follows her into the cave before falling under an enchanted sleep upon awakening to see the Morrigan who repeatedly whispers a spell over her, turning her into a river, the same river that feeds the muddy pool at the shamble. Apparently the cave is seen as a portal through which the Morrigan would pass in order to work with Medb as Goddess of Battle. She drove her otherworldly cattle into the cave every sunset. The Morrigan was blamed to have stolen a herd of cattle who belonged to a woman named Odras, and upon following to Morrigan to retrieve them, was turned into a lake by the Goddess. As is the story of Nera, a servant of Medb who met a Fairy woman here in this cave. He married her, and she warned him of Medb’s palace being burnt to the ground next Samhain by the creatures of the otherworld. Upon hearing this, Medb stationed her forces in the cave each Samhain to protect Cruachan from destruction.

Rathcrohan is the legendary burial grounds of the Kings of Coannaught. The region covers approximately 518 hectares hosting more than 20 ring forts, burial mounds, megalithic tombs such as the Relig na Ri (burial ground of the Kings), Rath na dTarbh (For the Bulls), and the Rathbeg. The archaeological site is massive, with earthworks spread over the region with the Grave of King Dathi (Last Pagan King of Ireland) as a 2 meter high standing stone being one of the few physical landmarks left that can be seen. This is also the site of the mythical battle of the “Tain Bo Cuailgne” that remains in the hearts, minds, and folklore of the people of Tulsk and Rathcroghan recorded in the Ancient Irish Epic of the Tain Bo Cuiailgne, the “Cattle Raid of Cooley”. The Tain Bo tells the story of Queen Maeve of Connaught and her armies that pursued the Grat Brown Bull of Cooley, the mighty warrior Cuchulain who does battle with the armies here, and his foster brother Erdia as he defends the Brown Bull, and the province of Ulster. There is a “Tain Trail Cycling and Touring Route” that re-traces the journey that Queen Maeve and her armies traveled from her Royal Palace at Rathcroghan across Ireland to the Cooley Peninsula in County Louth, the home of the Brown Bull. Rathcrohan hosts over 60 National Monuments here.

Bibliography/References:

  • Druid School: Oweynagat Cave of the Cats. Website referenced January 2012.
  • Fenwick, J. et al 1977 “Oweynagat”. Irish Speleology 16, 11-14.
  • Hannon, Ed 2012 “Visions of the Past: Oweynagat Cave”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://visionsofthepastblog.com/2012/10/01/oweynagat-cave-souterrain-co-roscommon/.
  • Mulranney, R. n.d “Caves of Ireland: Oweynagat Cave of the Cats”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://cavesofireland.wordpress.com/home/caves/oweynagat-cave-of-the-cats-co-roscommon/.
  • Waddell, J. 1983 “Rathcroghan – A Royal Site”. Journal of Irish Archaeology 1.
  • Wikipedia n.d. “Rathcroghan”. Website referenced 10/10/17 at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rathcroghan.

Oweynagat Cave – Cave of the Cats – entrance chamber

Oweynagat Cave – Cave of the Cats – Passage downward.

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Amethyst

Amethyst
~

Article by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

Coming Soon …

Name:

Folk Name:

Taxonomy:

Locality:

Description: This stone comes in a crystalline or translucent purple stone.

Uses:

Folklore/Spirituality: Known to represent supreme spirituality, it is a magical stone of choice. It is known to bring peace, tranquility, peace, satisfaction, aid in meditation, developing intuition, creativity, and connection with the divine.

More information:



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Amazonite

Amazonite
~

Article by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

Coming Soon …

Name:

Folk Name: Amazonite

Taxonomy:

Locality:

Description: Pale, blue-green in color.

Uses:

Folklore/Spirituality:
This stone is believed to connect oneself to their inner powers, intuition, universal love, self-love, and awareness. It is also supposed to renew one’s faith in life. It is also known to boost metabolism and aid in pregnancy, delivery, and aids one’s pre-menstrual symptoms.

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Agate

Agate
~

Article by Leaf McGowan/Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Productions ~

Name:

Folk Name: Agate

Taxonomy:

Locality:

Description: This mineralized stone comes in various colors and compositions.

Uses:

Folklore/Spirituality:

Believed to awaken inherent talents, transforms negativity, balancing the physical and emotional aspects of oneself.

More information:



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Viking Face and Body Painting

Ritual Painting of Face and Bodies in Viking Culture

by Thomas Baurley, 9/6/2017

It is a controversial and well debated subject whether or not the Vikings painted their faces and bodies. The Vikings were certainly exposed to the practice from their contact with the Britons, Celts, and Arabic Cultures. As early as 55 C.E. Julius Caesar wrote about the natives in Britannia about their usage during his conquest of the region, stating “All the Britons dye their bodies with woad, which produces a blue colour, and this gives them a more terrifying appearance in battle.” Perhaps it was adopted by the Vikings once battling the Brits. Hollywood definitely portrays this practice, but it could have no more validity as horned helmets being worn by Vikings.

There is evidence from the writings of “Ibrahim ibn Yaqub” who in 965 C.E. visited the Viking village of Hedeby reporting that many of the Vikings in the village, both male and female had enhanced their eyes with some sort of paint. This discovery leads many academics to believe it was strictly cosmetic in use. Some believe they painted themselves with complicated symbols, runes, and/or trees in symbology. Tools, materials, and dyes have been archaeologically excavated from sites in Northern Europe that even pre-dated the Vikings, so its not hard to believe they had the ability and knowledge to do so.

There were also found pieces of art depicting Vikings with painted faces discovered in archaeological excavations. The Fyrkat Denmark grave goods dating from 980 C.E. depicts a gilded box-brooch with a hinged lid, inside of which was contained very white lead carbonate often used in cosmetics and paints dating as far back as the Ancient Greeks. This had led scholars to conclude was used as white makeup (albeit lead being poisonous in such application over time).

Obviously Hollywood and the film industry have jumped to this conclusion and it has become commonplace in media, film, and photos with some very dynamic artwork produced called “Viking” influenced. Some of these can be seen here on pininterest: https://www.pinterest.com/explore/viking-makeup/?lp=true. My first and only time I went to a authentic Viking festival in Norway, I was allowed to be a Viking bodypainter, having had to create clay-based coloring, woad, and other herbal based paints, using horse-hair brushes I styled in ancient paintbrush style, and painted Runes on my customers, it went over well and was very popular.

References and extended research:


  • Ceasar, Julius n.d. “The Conquest of Gaul”
  • Fadlan, Ibn; Lunde, Paul; Stone, Caroline “Ibn Fadlan and the Land of Darkness: Arab Travellers in the Far North”. USBN: 9780140455076, Amazon books.
  • Handford, S.A. 1951 “Cesar: The Conquest of Gaul” translation, Penguin Classics.
  • Pentz, P 2009 “Mannering U: Kong Harolds volve”. Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark, pages 215-232.
  • Perabo, Lyonel – Quroa 2016 “Why did the Vikings paint their faces”. Website referenced 9/6/17 at https://www.quora.com/Why-did-the-Vikings-paint-their-faces.
  • Petersen, Irene Berg 2012 “What Vikings Really Looked Like”. ScienceNordic. Website referenced 9/6/17 at http://sciencenordic.com/what-vikings-really-looked.

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Baleen

WHALING
Baleen art – Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803)

Baleen Arts and Crafts

Baleen: “A Whale of a Story: The Inupiaq of northern Alaska have hunted bowhead whates and collected baleen for hundrreds of years. Although called ‘whale bone’ by Westerners, baleen is a fibrous sieve-like material that grows on both sides of a plankton-eating whale’s tongue and is made of the same material as hair, horn, and figernails. Prior to contact with Westerners, baleen was used to make items such as buckets, ice scoops, sled runner, lashings, fishing line, and nets. By 1875 and until modern plastics became available, Westerners used baleen to make things such as buggy whips, umbrella ribs, and corset stays for women. Inupiaq mostly from the villages of Barrow, Point Hope, and Wainwright, began to use baleen to make items for trade and sale to non-natives. Baleen was primarily used by male artists because baleen is a hard material and historically in their culture, only men used hard materials. These artists made items such as models and baskets. The first known baleen basket was made by an artist named Kinguktuk from Barrow, Alaska between 1914 and 1918 for a local resident named Charles Brower. Brower had asked Kinguktuk to copy a willow-root basket in baleen. Hunting bowhead whales remains an important part of the lives of many Inupiaq and artists continue to use baleen in new and innovative ways.”~display at Denver Art Museum.
Displayed arts of Baleen in the Pacific Northwest Indians exhibit at the Denver Art Museum.

WHALING
Baleen: “A Whale of a Story: The Inupiaq of northern Alaska have hunted bowhead whates and collected baleen for hundrreds of years. Although called ‘whale bone’ by Westerners, baleen is a fibrous sieve-like material that grows on both sides of a plankton-eating whale’s tongue and is made of the same material as hair, horn, and figernails. Prior to contact with Westerners, baleen was used to make items such as buckets, ice scoops, sled runner, lashings, fishing line, and nets. By 1875 and until modern plastics became available, Westerners used baleen to make things such as buggy whips, umbrella ribs, and corset stays for women. Inupiaq mostly from the villages of Barrow, Point Hope, and Wainwright, began to use baleen to make items for trade and sale to non-natives. Baleen was primarily used by male artists because baleen is a hard material and historically in their culture, only men used hard materials. These artists made items such as models and baskets. The first known baleen basket was made by an artist named Kinguktuk from Barrow, Alaska between 1914 and 1918 for a local resident named Charles Brower. Brower had asked Kinguktuk to copy a willow-root basket in baleen. Hunting bowhead whales remains an important part of the lives of many Inupiaq and artists continue to use baleen in new and innovative ways.”~display at Denver Art Museum. Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowa

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Seagrass Basketry and Weaving

Seagrass Baskets – Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803)

Seagrass Baskets

Seagrass Baskets: “Baskets of Sea Grass – Artists of the windswept Aleutian Islands create some of the most fragile baskets in the world. They start with carefully prepared strands of fine beach grass that they then emellish with colorful yarn or even white bird quills. Some shapes are influenced by non-native items like cigar cases and Victorian candy dishes, but all are among the most tightly woven anywhere.” ~ display at Denver Art Museum.

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Pacific Northwest Native American Art

Pacific Northwest Tribal Art

Pacific Northwest Native American Art & Culture
~ Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017.

Native American culture of the Pacific Northwest is amongst some of the most impressive art forms and mythology on the planet. The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes

Material Culture:

Research is being conducted, please come back for more information and photos.

Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Inupiaq Seal/Walrus Skin Armor

Inupiaq Walrus/Seal Skin Suit of Armor: dated 1945 by Jimmy Otiyohok, Inupiaq.

Inupiaq Walrus/Seal Skin Suit of Armor
~ Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017.

Even though many of the tribes in what is known Alaska are seen as very peaceful people, conflicts and warfare did occur, to the extent that the Inupiaq and Chukotkan men had created armor. There were two basic types (1) plate armor made of bone, ivory, antler, or iron plates lashed together and (2) band armor consisting of telescoping bands of hide. Both of these were worn over ordinary clothing and extended from head to toe. The armor was accompanied often with helmets, cuirasses, shields, shin guards, wrist guards, and neck protectors. The armor was strong enough to be invincible to arrows (except close range). Plate armor was made from dozens of ivory plates carved from walrus tusks.First evidence of this armor was found in Chukotka at various Punuk sites/excavations. Large quantities of armor plates were also discovered at western Thule at Barrow from the 15th century. The would fight with spears (defense), bows/arrows (attack), lances, knives, and slingshots. By the early 19th century after contact with Euro-Americans, they incorporated muzzle loaded guns.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “weapons and tools” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

The armor depicted here is dated to 1945 CE (Common Era) and was made by Jimmy Otiyohok, Inupiaq. Made of Walrus skin, seal skin, wood. This ingenious type of armor was created to protect men in battle. Fashioned from the thick hide of a walrus, the armor is made in several collapsible concentric rings that girdle the soldier’s body but are flexible to allow movement. The upper section protects the head and neck region with bendable ‘elbow joints’. Arrows would bounce off the thick hide.

    Additional references:

  • Buron, Ernest S. “Alliance and Conflict: The World System of the Inupaiq Eskimo

Inupiaq Walrus/Seal Skin Suit of Armor: dated 1945 by Jimmy Otiyohok, Inupiaq. Made of Walrus skin, seal skin, wood. This ingenious type of armor was created to protect men in battle. Fashioned from the thick hide of a walrus, the armor is made in several collapisble concentric rings that girdle the soldier’s body but are flexible to allow movement. The upper section protects the head and neck region with bendable ‘elbow joints’. Arrows would bounce off the thick hide. Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting & Culture

Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803)

Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting & Culture
~ Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017.

The indigenous First Nation’s people in the area known as Modern day Alaska are divided into eleven distinct cultures, with over 11 different language groups and 22 different dialects. The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) is one of the larger groupings of indigenous culture in the region, with territories expanding from Norton Sound/Bering Sea to the US/Canadian border. There are seven villages in the North Slope Borough, eleven villages in the Northwest Arctic Borough, and 16 villages in the Bering Straights Regional corporation today.

They originated in the Thule Culture dating to approximately 1000 B.C.E. (Before Common Era) and believed to have migrated from the Islands to the mainland by the Bering Sea what is now called Alaska. These original peoples share common language groupings with the Inuit. It is believed after exposure to Euro-American whaling explorers the Inuiaq contracted an influenza epidemic and simultaneously went through a period of starvation forcing them to migrate to the mainland between 1890 and 1910. Some moved on to the mountains by the 1930s. Many Nunamiut such as the Killikmiut moved their peoples to Anaktuvuk Pass in north-central Alaska today. Others remained nomadic until the 1950s.

Ceremony/Ritual/Beliefs/Religion:

Animism was common as well as spirit worship based around reincarnation and recycling of spirit forms from one life to the next for all living creatures. Those who pass will have their names assigned to recent newborns. It was important to respect the kill of the hunt, releasing the animals spirit so it would return for future hunts. All life was highly respected because of this belief.

Clothing:

The Inupiaq and Yupik dress was pretty similar to neighboring peoples, consisting of large outer/inner pullover tops called parkas (kuspuks/qiipaghaq); inner and outer pants, socks and kamiks (boots). Tops and pants were commonly made from caribou skin with fur facing inward on the inner garments, outwards on the outer garments. Female pullovers often had a larger hood to help carry children (except St. Lawrence Island as they did not carry kids in the parkas). Animal skin gloves with fur turned inside with a leather strip were also common. They made waterproofed clothing out of sea-mammal intestines.

Housing Settlements:

The Native populations created a variety of housing types but most involved an underground tunnel entrance below the living level to trap cold air, consisted of a semi-subterranean structure utilizing the ground as insulation, and was heated/lit by a seal-oil lamp made from pottery or soapstone. These also were used for cooking. Most houses were made of sod blocks laid over walrus/whale bone or driftwood frames in a dome or rectangular shape. Circular shaped homes were common on St. Lawrence Island as the rectangular shape (12-15′ x 8-10′) was common everywhere else. Most of these houses were used in winter months and the families would move to nomadic camps during summer months. A community house called gargis was where the tribe gathered, did community projects or work.

Hunting and Subsistence:

The peoples depended on seasonal gatherings and hunting expeditions varying by location. Commonly hunted were whales, seals, walruses, pink / chum salmon, cod, inconnu, whitefish, herring, halibut, crab, birds, eggs, caribou and the gathering of plants.

Social Organization:

Families in the tribe would divide labor and chores by gender and conducted barter with one another in a very respectful and peaceful manner. They released their tensions in competitive games that would focus on strength and stamina of the contestants, and would also have song duels with one another exchanging stories, myths, and culture.

Tools:

The Inupiaq and Yupik had their two common tool kits consisting of various tools made of stone, wood, and bone that were used for hunting, tanning, carving, butchering, drilling, hiding, inscribing, sharpening, and flaking. They also used the bow drill for starting fires and drilling holes in wood /bone /ivory. The processing tool kit included the above while the hunting tools including lances, toggle-headed harpoons, lines, and marine mammal bladder floats (seal bladder floats for the bowhead whale hunts and seal skin floats for other whale hunts which when filled with water attract and lead the whales closer to shore). Other tools used included scratching boards to attract seals to breathing holes, bows, arrows, spears, spear throwers, bolas (hunting birds), snares, nets, wooden traps, and hooks. The tools used were varied, and consist of various items such as Harpoons and Toggles. Sometimes they made figurines of beings or creatures they wanted to successfully hunt, like Sculpin figurines or a representative Totem is involved. They were also known to create Seagrass Weaving & Basketry and Baleen Crafts.

Transportation:

The Inupiaq and Yupik often had large open skin boats called Umiaq/Angyaq for their hunts and to get around from village to village. These boats were roughly 15-25 feet long (some upwards of 50′) and are common on walrus or whale hunts, trade routes, and long distance travel holding up to 15 passengers. Single riders would use a closed skin boat kayak. Basket sleds were common for travel over the land and flat sled to haul the boats across the ice. Snowshoes were common for foot travel.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “hunting tools and weapons” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

Ivory Tool or Weapon by an Old Bering Sea Artist, ca. 100-800 CE. Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting Tools (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3815); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

More Information/References:

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