Scraper

Scrapers
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida

From prehistory, all over the world are found stone tools that are created in various forms and functions. The Scraper is a unifacial tool that is often most used for hide or wood working. Many stone tools fall under this unifacial flaked tool, but the authentic scrapers are based on use-wear patterns usually from the distal end of a blade. There are also side scrapers usually made off the long side of the flake as well as notched scrapers that may have had a cleft on either side attaching it to a handle.

Scrapers are made by the action of taking an end of a stone, usually a flaking material like obsidian, chert, or jasper, and is chipped forming a sharp side while retaining the raw form of the rest of the stone to use as a handle or make it easier to grasp. Scrapers once finished are often blade-like or circular in appearance with a convex working edge. If hafted, they may have dulled or trimmed lateral edges. Scrapers are commonly found in lithic sites and scatters. They are classified by their size, shape, base, edge wear, number of edges, etc. Scrapers are used to scrape wood or hide to create form or remove skin. Some are independent or mounted on wood or bone. As they are re-sharpened over time, they become smaller and smaller through use and wear.

    Types:
  • End Scraper
  • Grattoir or Side Scraper
  • Hafted or Clefted Scraper
  • Hollow Scraper
  • Nose Scraper
  • Thumbnail Scraper. (shaped in size like a thumb nail)

Scraper illustration from WIkipedia Commons. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Convex_transverse_scraper.jpg by Gayoung Park

Archaeologists often classify Scrapers as either (a) scraper, (b) End Scraper, or (c) Side Scraper. Some however also add in if it is hafted/clefted or a thumbnail scraper. End scrapers have working edges on either one or both sides of the flake, and side scraper’s working edge is along one of the long sides. Other defining factors is based on use wear or function often by use with wood or hide. Scrapers that are used to cut, skin hide or shave wood that are usually made of flint are sometimes called grattoir and possesses a working edge along the long axis of the blade (side scraper). Nose scrapers often have a small working edge either at one or both ends of the tool and is made from a convex blade utilized for finer edging. Hollow scrapers often have a notch in the side or the edge of the blade.

When recorded, the worked tool is recorded based on tool size (weight, dimensions, and whether large/small); shape (circular, rectangular, triangular, irregular, domed, keeled, or discoidal) and if diagnostic; use wear (damaged or intact, purposely shaped, and potential use purpose); base (if fashioned from a tool or flake, or core); working edges (numbers counted 1 or 2 usually); edge angle (vertical working edge vs acute); edge shape (straight, convex, or concave); functional edges (end or side).

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “scrapers” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people. Scrapers have evolved from stone to bone, ivory, and/or metal through time with the Pacific Coast tribes.

Scraper by a Punuk Artist, 800-1200 CE, made of slate and ivory. Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting Tools (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3815); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography



Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida


Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida

    “PALEO TOOLS: The kinds of tools used by the Paleoindians can tell us much about their way of life. Most of the tools surviving today are made of stone. Spear points, knives, drills, and scrapers are typical Paleoindian artifacts. They were used for a variety of tasks, including hunting and butchering animals, processing plants, and working raw materials to make other tools. Archaeological sites of the Paleoindians contain mostly chipped stone tools and waste flakes left from the manufacturing process. However it is almost certain that these people made wide use of other raw materials including bone, wood, ivory, and antler. Objects made of these materials do not preserve as well as stone and have likely decayed over the past 10,000 years. Springs, sinkholes and deep river beds offer good conditions for preserving organic materials because of their high mineral content and lack of oxygen. Fragments of bone, wood, and other plant remains will give clues to future archaeologists who research the skills that Paleoindians needed to survive in Ice Age Florida. ” ~ Display at the Florida Museum of Natural History.

Scraper Knives – “PALEO TOOLS: The kinds of tools used by the Paleoindians can tell us much about their way of life. Most of the tools surviving today are made of stone. Spear points, knives, drills, and scrapers are typical Paleoindian artifacts. They were used for a variety of tasks, including hunting and butchering animals, processing plants, and working raw materials to make other tools. Archaeological sites of the Paleoindians contain mostly chipped stone tools and waste flakes left from the manufacturing process. However it is almost certain that these people made wide use of other raw materials including bone, wood, ivory, and antler. Objects made of these materials do not preserve as well as stone and have likely decayed over the past 10,000 years. Springs, sinkholes and deep river beds offer good conditions for preserving organic materials because of their high mineral content and lack of oxygen. Fragments of bone, wood, and other plant remains will give clues to future archaeologists who research the skills that Paleoindians needed to survive in Ice Age Florida. ” ~ Display at the Florida Museum of Natural History. (Photo 091712-013.jpg) Paleoindians section of the Division of Historical Resources – Florida Museum of History – Where I used to work – September 17, 2012: A Walk Down Memory Lane – revisiting College Town – Tallahassee, Florida. (c) 2012 – photography by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley, technogypsie.com. To purchase this photo or to obtain permission to use, go to http://www.technogypsie.com/photography/
“PALEOINDIANS: The earliest people who inhabited North America are called Paleoindians. They came to Florida during the end of the last Ice Age, at least 12,000 years ago. Their way of life lasted for about 2,500 years. Archaeologists have found few Paleoindian sites. If, as it seems likely, these early people lived along the coast of Florida, their settlements have been covered by the rising sea level.

Scrapers – “PALEO TOOLS: The kinds of tools used by the Paleoindians can tell us much about their way of life. Most of the tools surviving today are made of stone. Spear points, knives, drills, and scrapers are typical Paleoindian artifacts. They were used for a variety of tasks, including hunting and butchering animals, processing plants, and working raw materials to make other tools. Archaeological sites of the Paleoindians contain mostly chipped stone tools and waste flakes left from the manufacturing process. However it is almost certain that these people made wide use of other raw materials including bone, wood, ivory, and antler. Objects made of these materials do not preserve as well as stone and have likely decayed over the past 10,000 years. Springs, sinkholes and deep river beds offer good conditions for preserving organic materials because of their high mineral content and lack of oxygen. Fragments of bone, wood, and other plant remains will give clues to future archaeologists who research the skills that Paleoindians needed to survive in Ice Age Florida. ” ~ Display at the Florida Museum of Natural History. (Photo 091712-013.jpg) Paleoindians section of the Division of Historical Resources – Florida Museum of History – Where I used to work – September 17, 2012: A Walk Down Memory Lane – revisiting College Town – Tallahassee, Florida. (c) 2012 – photography by Leaf McGowan, Thomas Baurley, technogypsie.com. To purchase this photo or to obtain permission to use, go to http://www.technogypsie.com/photography/
“PALEOINDIANS: The earliest people who inhabited North America are called Paleoindians. They came to Florida during the end of the last Ice Age, at least 12,000 years ago. Their way of life lasted for about 2,500 years. Archaeologists have found few Paleoindian sites. If, as it seems likely, these early people lived along the coast of Florida, their settlements have been covered by the rising sea level.

Hafted Scraper:


Florida Museum of Natural History, Tallahassee, Florida

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