Totems: Pacific Northwest Aboriginal Culture

Totems (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3801)

Totems
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

One of the phenomenal ominous presences in the Pacific Northwest, as well as superNATURAL British Columbia, is the plethera of artistic totems created by the past and present Pacific Northwest tribes. It is truly a part of my heart’s connection with Cascadia.

Totems, in the Pacific Northwest, are usually depicted by the stacking of tribal masks or heads carved into a tall towering pole. “Totems” are spirit beings, symbols, or sacred objects that represent families, clans, lineages, or tribes. Totem as a definition was first classified from the art forms and beliefs made by the Ojibwe tribe in the Pacific Northwest. They see the concept as believing in tutelary Deities or spirits. This concept however is worldwide, and defining term “totem” is utilized by Anthropologists to explain this concept as it is used in other cultures such as Australia, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Arctic, and Middle East. Most cultures outside of the Americas call their guardian spirits and symbols by other words rather than “totems”. Neo-Paganism and the New Age have adopted the term “totem” to identify a particular personal or tutelary spirit guide.

Pacific Northwest – North America

The Pacific Northwest, nicknamed “Cascadia” is home to most of the “Totem culture” found in North America. Many of these are represented in Totem Poles. The belief in totems follows alongside “animism”, the belief that everything has a spirit or soul. Many totems are animals or creatures that represent a tribe, family, or clan.

Totem Poles
Totem poles feature tribal masks, heads, animals (especially bears, frogs, birds), and supernatural creatures or beings from myths. These often function as representatives, chiefs, or crests of a family or royal lineage. Each is embedded with its own stories, myths, tales, and traditions. On a totem pole, they are read from the bottom to top.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes have a distinct style, culture, and belief system. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

Totems (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3801); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Wrist Guard

Ivory Wrist Guard by Punuk Artist, 800-1200 CE.

Wrist Guards
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

Throughout history, wrist guards were created and used to protect a bearer’s wrist and arm from injury. This is done sometimes during warfare, during archery, while throwing spears, and/or projectiles. It is also to protect from falling damages. Today it is commonly used to protect athletes during sports. When a person falls, they typically stretch out their arms or hands out in front of them to break the fall. The extra support found in the wrist guard helps with the impact.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “wrist guards” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

Research is being conducted, please come back for more information and photos.

Ivory Wrist Guard by Punuk Artist dating to 800-1200 CE. Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting Tools (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3815); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Sculpin Figurine

Ivory Sculpin Figurine by Old Bering Sea Artist dating to 100-800 C.E.

Sculpin Figurine
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “sculpin figurines” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

Sculpins are a fish common in the Pacific Northwest. They live in oceans, rivers, kelp forests, tidepools, and submarine canyons. They are bottom dwellers.

Research is being conducted, please come back for more information and photos.

Inupiag & Yup’ik Hunting Tools (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3815); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Toggle (nautical)

Ivory Toggle by Inupiag Artist dating to ca. 1900 CE.

Nautical Toggle
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

A toggle is usually made of wood, ivory, bone, or metal and consists of a pin, short rod, or crosspiece that is placed transversely into the eye of a rope or chain that is utilized to connect or secure to another loop, ring, or bight.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes as well as Pacific Coast Tribes have very intriguing “toggles” in their culture and archaeological record. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people.

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Button Blankets

Button Blankets

Button Blankets
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

Button Blankets
“‘There was so much power in them … these ceremonial robes are used to display your lineage and display it proudly … like a king wears his robe.’ – Francis Williams (Haida) : Artists combine manufactured buttons with buttons made from native shells to make these colorful robes called ‘button blankets’. The designs on the blankets are narrative art that signal the owners’ clan identity, status, and hereditary rights and privileges. Imagine the stunning visual effect of flickering firelight reflecting off the iridescent buttons of robed dancers.” ~ Denver Museum of Art display.

The North American Northwest and Columbia Plateau Tribes have a distinct style, culture, and belief system. The Artwork of the Native American Pacific Northwest Cultures is phenomenal, embedded with myths, legends, and spirituality that empowers their people. Their costumes and clothing reflect many aspects of this in the decoration and style as well as purpose or intent.

Research is being conducted, please come back for more information and photos.

Button Blankets (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3811); Pacific Northwest Tribal Art (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3803); Pacific Northwest Tribes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3467) Exhibit – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838). Wandering around Denver, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken Saturday, August 5, 2017. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2017 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography

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Ceramic Glazes

Ceramic Glazes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3793)

Ceramic Glazes
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

Glazes on ceramics were recorded as far back as 2,000 years ago. Glazing involves firing the coating of a vitreous substance atop a ceramic item. This methodology is utilized to decorate, coat, color, and/or waterproof the ceramic item. Glazing alters the porousity of a ceramic item allowing it to hold liquids and strengthens its form. It is utilized on clay based ceramics, porcelain, terracotta tiles, bricks, sanitary ware, as well as stoneware. It is a popular finishing methodology for modern as well as historic ceramics, being a very common practice. Most of the traditional glazes are often named after their fluxing agents. Modern art glazes involve glass, plastics, metal, and other vitreous glazes for differing results.

  • Ash Glaze
    Plant or Wood Ash containing potash and lime is used as the fluxing agent to create a darker color.
  • Feldsparic Glazes
    Very common in Asian ceramics the primary fluxing agent is Feldspar.
  • Lead Glazed Earthenware
    This glaze comes out semi-transparent and shiny after firing, and dates back to over 2,000 years ago within Mediterranean, European, and Chinese cultures. Two common types are “sancai” and “Victorian majolica”. Firing is achieved at a mere 800 °C (1,470 °F).
  • Salt Glazed Wares
    Very common with stoneware in Europe, the fluxing agent is salt.
  • Tin Glazed Pottery
    Very common in the Near East, Middle East, and Islamic Culture, and later in European Culture, Tin glazes is a opaque white glaze that coats pottery with a tin based fluxing agent. Types include majolica, faience, maiolica, and Delftware.

Composition

The process of glazing requires partial liquification of the clay composites creating a ceramic flux and melding with other fluxing agents to create varying glazes and results. Most glazes consist of some form of silica or glass within them, and the fluxing agents will lower the high melting point of the silica to create the finish and strength needed. Sometimes Boron trioxide is added. Besides silica, other raw materials acting as fluxing agents can be minerals, chemicals, or metal oxides such as aluminum, alumina, calcium, potassium, or sodium. Alumina that comes from clays will solidify quickly the glaze so it doesn’t run or drip. In order to obtain varyig colors and finishes, some metal oxides are added as colorants to modify appearance such as with iron oxide, cobalt carbonate, coppoer carbonate, tin oxide, and/or zirconium oxide.

Processing

There are different processes used in applying glazes, ranging from brushing, painting, soaking, dipping, pouring, spraying, dry-dusting or atmospheric by inserting soda or salt within the kiln at high temperatures so the vapors chemically mixes with the silica or alumina oxides depositing glass or salt glaze ceramics. In the use of kilns, sometimes a small area of the pottery is left untreated so as not to create an error with the piece sticking to the kiln during firing. This is also accomplished by using kiln spurs, supports, or sticks to minimalize unfinished areas – but these too will leave small marks on the finished wares.

Decorating

The glazed ceramics are often decorated with the glazes by applying an underglaze. These are done by “biscuit” firing (initial firing pre-glaze application and re-firing), application while the pottery is still in its raw pre-fired status, or by means of greenware. A transparent wet glaze is often applied over decorations. Decorations are done by grooving, cutting, imprinting, stamping, carving, stickling, dotting, impressions, drawing, painting, coloring, or imprinting. The pigments will fuse within the glaze and looks like it is covered over with a clear glaze. This is a popular underglazing process called “blue and white porcelain” displaying a impressive deep blue color formulated from cobalt carbonate and/or oxide that comes from England, Nederlands, Japan, and China. Overglazes are also produced by applying decoration on top of the glazes with the inclusion of a non-glaze substance like metals, leafing (gold leaf is popular), enamel, or layers of glass over the glaze utilizing low temperatures and makig a glassy appearance. The initial firing called “glost” is achieved after which the overglaze decoration is introduced, and a re-firing takes place creating a smoother texture to the ceramic or pottery.

History of Glazing

While over 2,000 years old, Glazing developed at a slower than expected rate through history, usually based on the elements included, and it took time for those materials to be discovered with realization what could be achieved by their inclusion. This evolved alongside the technological advances of firing and achievement of higher temperatures.

  • 13th century BCE: Glazed bricks, Elamite Temple, Chogha Zanbil.
  • 1600-1046 BCE: Proto Celadon glazed stoneware during Shang Dynasy
  • 1049 BCE: Glazed bricks, Iron Pagoda, Kaifeng, China.
  • 471-221 BCE: Lead glazed earthenware in China.
  • 552-794 CE: Green natural ash glazes/Sue ware was found during the Kofun period, Japan.
  • 8th century CE: Islamic use of glazed ceramics were uncovered.
  • 13th century CE: Overglazes in use with red/blue/green/yellow/black flower designs

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Ruskin Pottery

Ceramic Glazes (http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3793) – Denver Museum of Art/ Art Museum (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=838).

Ruskin Pottery
Article and research by Thomas Baurley, Technogypsie Research, August 7, 2017

Research is being conducted, please come back for more information and photos.

Ruskin:
“In 1898 Edward Richard Taylor (1838-1912) and his youngest son William Howson Taylor (1876-1935) established Ruskin Pottery near Birmingham England. The Taylors named the pottery after writer and critic John Ruskin, whose ideals of quality and beauty they sought to embody in their works. The Ruskin Pottery style was based on hand thrown and hand-turned ceramic bodies with unusual glazes. The Pottery produced decorative vessels, tableware, buttons, and small glazed plagues called enamels, intended to be set in silver or pewter as jewelry. Howson Taylor continually experimented with new and sometimes difficult glaze techniques, resulting in four primary glazes – souffle, luster, crystalline/matte, and high fired flambe – each explored in the following cases. When Ruskin Pottery closed in 1933, Howson Taylor refused to share his glaze recipes, writing, “Why let another firm make rubbish and call it Ruskin?”” Though the secrets were lost, the works on view in this exhibition – drawn from a remarkable gift by Carl Patterson of over 200 objects – illustrate Ruskin’s dazzling range of glazes and shapes from its short but prolific history.” ~ Display at the Denver Museum of Art.

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Garden of the Gods – Colorado Springs, Colorado

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545)

Garden of the Gods
1805 N 30th Street (at Gateway Rd) * Manitou / Colorado Springs, Colorado * 719.634.6666 * http://www.gardenofgods.com/ * http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545
Originally first published May 9, 2009 by Thomas Baurley

Garden of the Gods is a unique natural geological park that is located in Colorado Springs and Manitou Springs … and is a Registered National Natural Landmark. It’s open from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. in the summer and 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. in the winter. The park boasts over a million visitors a year or more.

History and Mythology

Where the Great Plains grasslands meet the low-lying pinon-juniper woodlands of the American Southwest at the base of the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains a geological upheaval occurred along the Trans-Rocky Mountain Fault system creating these spectacular features over a million years ago. Horizontal ancient beds of sandstone, limestone, and conglomerates were pushed and tilted vertically when the tectonic plates pushed together. Glaciations, wind, and water erosion shaped the features over hundreds of thousands of years.

This geologic feature was seen as sacred grounds by the original inhabitants of the area, potentially visited and used for spirituality possibly over 3,000 years ago to present. As early as 1330 B.C.E. evidence of human occupation has been found from petroglyphs, fire rings, pottery, and stone tools have been left behind. The Ute Indians claim that their people always had lived where Garden of the Gods Park now stands and their people were created there and around Manitou.

The Kiowa, Apache, Shoshone, Pawnee, Cheyenne, and Arapaho also claim their peoples visited or lived here. It was known as a pivotal crossroads and meeting place for many indigenous peoples and nomadic tribes gathered together for peace. Rivaling tribes were said to even have laid down their weapons before entering the shadows of the sandstone features.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Two sets of petroglyphs were found here – the first hidden in a crevice on the east side of South Gateway Rock depicting a circular shield-like figure divided into four parts with a rain cloud terrace image, a Thunderbird image, zigzag lines, and image of wheat or corn and a faint flower-like image with a dozen dots forming a semi-circle over its top which some experts said was done recently in the last 100 years copying Indian designs from a book. The other petroglyph is pecking in the rock discovered in the 1980’s and estimated to date to 1500 C.E. most likely an Ute Indian design potentially depicting a deer, a third of a buffalo head, and maybe a stone tool seemingly telling a story.

Alleged Native American legends of the site have been told, their authenticity unknown. Marion E. Gridley wrote in “Indian Legends of American Scenes” telling a tale about a great flood that covered all the mountains nearby Pikes Peak. As the waters receded, the Great Spirit petrified the carcasses of all animals killed by the flood into sandstone rolling them down into this valley as evidence of the Great Flood.

The second was written by Ford C. Frick saying “… in the nestling ales and on the grassy plains which lie at the foot of the Great White Mountain that points the way to heaven lived the Chosen People. Here they dwelt in happiness together. And above them on the summit of the Mighty Peak where stand the Western Gates of Heaven, dwelt the Manitou. And that the Chosen might know of his love the Manitou did stamp uon the Peak the image of his face that all might see and worship him … but one day as the storm clouds played about the Peak, the image of the Manitou was hid .. and down from the North swept a barbaric tribe of giants, taller than the spruce which grew upon the mountain side and so great that in their stamping strides they shook the earth. And with the invading host came gruesome beasts – unknown and awful in their mightiness – monstrous beasts that would devour the earth and tread it down … and as the invading hosts came on the Chosen Ones fell to the earth at the first gentle slope of mountain and prayed to Manitou to aid it. Then came to pass a wondrous miracle, the clouds broke away and sunshine smote the Peak and from the very summit, looking down, appeared the face of Manitou himself. And stern he looked upon the advancing host, and as he looked the giants and beasts turned to stone within their very steps … “

If this site was in Australia or Europe, it would be named castles and fortresses associated with Gods, Deities, Spirits, or Faeries.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Westerners first discovered the features in 1859 by two surveyors who were here to build Old Colorado City. M.S. Beach, one of the surveyors thought it would be a great location for a beer garden. The other surveyor replied to him stating “A Beer Garden? Why this is fit place for the Gods to assemble. We will call it Garden of the Gods”. General William Jackson Palmer who was known for his contributions of building Colorado Springs convinced his colleague Charles Elliot Perkins to buy the 240 acres embracing the features. In 1909 his children donated the land to the city of Colorado Springs.

The original family that donated the land to the public required that it would always remain free, and that is what it remains today. Garden of the Gods stands as a great park for hiking, walking, bicycling, rock climbing, picnicking, special events, and weddings … The park has it all … protected as 1,387 scenic acres … and presents itself as a unique tourist / information center, with a theater and gift shop near the entrance. Within are 15 miles of trails ranging in various levels of difficulty from beginner to advance for hiking and exercise.
A historical video greets you at the welcome center and tells the tale that began in the 1870’s when the railroads carved westward, when General William Jackson Palmer founded the city of Colorado Springs and upon discovering this natural beauty, urged his friend Charles Elliott Perkins, the head of Burlington Railroad, to make his home where the park now stands. He lived there until he finished his railway from Chicago to Colorado Springs. His railroad project wasn’t a success and never made its destination in the springs.
His homestead eventually became his summer home in 1879. He purchased 480 acres and never actualized building on it, leaving the land in its natural state and for the public. When he died in 1907, he made arrangements for the land to be a public park, and this was enacted by his children in 1909 forever as the Garden of the Gods “where it shall remain free to the public, where no intoxicating liquors shall be manufactured, sold, or dispensed, where no building or structure shall be erected except those necessary to properly care for, protect, and maintain the area as a public park.” That is exactly what they’ve done …. and its a beautiful place to be.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit   http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography.  Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

Garden of the Gods (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=545); Explorations around Manitou Springs, Colorado. New Life in Colorado: Chronicle 26 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Colorado. Photos taken December 18, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=21965. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved. www.technogypsie.com/photography. Manitou Springs: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613; Colorado: http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=22613.

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Rattlesnake

Rattlesnake Warning ( http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3279). Gingko Tree Petrified Forest ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 29, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan  and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

Rattlesnake Warning ( http://www.technogypsie.com/science/?p=3279). Gingko Tree Petrified Forest (http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979).

Rattlesnake

Article by Thomas Baurley, Leaf McGowan, Technogypsie Research www.technogypsie.com on December 3, 2016.

Taxonomy: Kingdom: Animalia; Phylum: Chordata; Subphylum: Vertebrata; Class: Reptilia; Order: Squamata; Suborder: Serpentes; Family: Viperidae; Subfamily: Crotalinae. genera is either Crotalus or Sistrurus.

Common Names: Rattlesnake; diamond back; rattler

Locality/Habitat:

Rattlesnakes are found far and wide notably in drier climates, but very common in forests, grass lands, swamps, deserts, prairies, and scrub brush lands. Cold blooded, capable swimmers, and semi-aggressive serpents. They often habitat dens with other rattlesnakes. They can be found throughout North, Central, and South America. They are very common in the Western United States, Southern United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America. There are four species that can be found east of the Mississippi and two in South America. In the United States, the states that have the largest populations of rattlers are Arizona and Texas. They are an iconic inhabitant of the American southwest. Depending on the species, some can have extremely specific habitats while others range with altitudes. Most prefer open, rocky areas that give them camouflage ability to hide from predators and prey on food. They generally prefer temperatures between 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit but can survive freezing temperatures briefly as low as 4 degrees Fahrenheit with survival means for several days as low as 37 degrees. They are oviparous meaning that they don’t lay eggs. Their eggs are carried within the female for approximately three months then live birth is given during delivery.

Description:

Rattlesnakes are amongst some of the most feared reptiles due to their venom and aggression. Rattlesnakes hunt their prey utilizing a heat sensing organ located in pits near their eyes that allow them to track the heat signature of creatures around them, especially effective at night. They often lay hidden in brush or rocks waiting for preferably a small rodent, mammal, lizard, or bird to be nearby within striking distance to stab with its fangs by means of “ambush predation”. They often smell with their tongues. They only need to eat once every two weeks. To protect themselves from predators, they warn with their rattle based on muscle contractions, some will have camouflage coloring to blend in with their surroundings, and others can be silent in order to slither away from danger. Known predators are birds of prey especially hawks, weasels, ferrets, king snakes, humans, and other large carnivorous mammals. If the rattler stands its ground, it will coil, appear ready to strike, and will usually not strike unless the presumed danger is within its striking range and it feels threatened. Most humans who are struck usually are toying with them, accidentally walked in their strike zone, surprised them, or tried to handle them.

Biology: Rattlers have a lifespan of approximately 10-25 years. There are 36 known species with 65-70 sub-species. They are ecto-thermic or cold-blooded, meaning they cannot regulate their own body temperatures and rely on their habitat to provide heat, most commonly from the sun, and is why they are often found basking in the sun. They often live with other rattlesnakes in dens wrapped up in balls within one another for warmth. Generally rattlesnakes have large bodies with triangular shaped heads and a rattle at the end of their tail. The rattles consist of a series of inter-locking scales, growing in age with the snake, that rattle when they sense a predator nearby. Their muscles contract causing the scales to click together creating a rattle-like sound. Rattlesnakes can grow upwards from 1 to 8 feet in length depending on species.

General Uses:

Rattlesnakes are often hunted for their skins, fangs, skull, rattles, and meat. They are often cooked like chicken, usually barbecued or fried. Running joke is the meat tastes like chicken.

Medicinal Uses: unknown. Venom is poisonous.

Magical Uses: Rattle, skull, and skin is often used in magical spells to attack, provoke, or protect. Often used in defensive spells. Rattlesnake iconography is used for visions and contacting the other world.

Spirituality:

Rattlers were symbolic during the Revolutionary War as a symbol of the U.S. Military and various political movements. They are also found in stone sculptures as feathered serpents in Mexico City, Aztec paintings, Central American temples, and southeastern burial mounds as powerful Deity. Quetzalcoatl is a Meso-American Deity depicted as being feathered with rattles. The Maya depicted the rattlesnake as a “vision serpent” acting as a conduit for contacting the other world or other dimensions. The fundamentalist Christian religion known as the Pentecostal Church of God has a sub-sect that dances and/or snake handles rattlesnakes to prove their dedication in faith and to God or Jesus. This is based on the Bible verse Mark 16:17-18 reading “In my name .. they will pick up snakes with their hands.”

Folklore: Coming soon.

Types: Coming soon.

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References:

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Gingko Petrified Forest

Gingko Tree Petrified Forest ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 29, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan  and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

Gingko Tree Petrified Forest ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 29, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

Gingko Petrified Forest
Vantage, Washington. http://parks.state.wa.us/288/Ginkgo-Petrified-Forest
Article by Thomas Baurley on 12/3/2016 ~

Enroute to a archaeological survey I was doing, we stopped the night at Wanapum State Park only to discover next door was the GIngko Petrified Forest. What a treasure trove lying within the Washington desert for any paleontology enthusiast. The park is approximately 7,470 acres including over 27,000 along the shoreline of the Wanapum Reservoir on the Columbia River. This petrified forest was once a tropical jungle that after cataclystic events became hardened into stone by volcanic activity and lava during the Miocene Period. It is located right off of Interstate 90. We took a hike along the “Trees of Stone” interpretative Trail, just down the road from the interpretive center. You have the option of the longer 2.5 mile loop or a 1.5 mile loop. Dotted along the trail are metal cages containing in situ various tree stumps and logs that were petrified long ago. There are over 22 species of trees that can be found on the paths. The petrified trees were discovered by a highway crew in 1927 led by geologist George F. Beck. In 1938 the Civilian Conservation Corps completed Beck’s excavations, built a museum here, and opening the park to the public. In 1965 it was designated a National Landmark by the National Park Service.
The interpretative center and museum tells the story of the forest, how it was formed, what life was like when it existed and how it is now. During the Miocene of the Neogene period (15.5 Million years ago), this area was a semi-humid jungle that was affected by volcanic fissures and lava flows that once came across the Columbia Plateau. These flows leveled the landscape that once was here, flattened and encased in basalt rock. During the burial, a chemical transformation converted the wood to stone by process of petrification when the minerals and silica from the volcanic ash mixes with ground water, penetrates and soaks into the wood, and mineralized it enough to make it rock. By the end of the last ice age, the catastrophic Missoula Floods around 15,000 BPE, the basalt was eroded and exposed some of the petrified wood. There are over 50 species found within the park including sweetgum, ginkgo, redwood, douglas fir, walnut, spruce, elm, maple, horse chestnut, cottonwood, magnolia, madroe, sassafras, yew, and witch hazel.

The Wanapum peoples lived in this region from the Columbia River to Beverly Gap onwards to the Snake River. They welcomed the white settlers during Lewis and Clark’s expedition. They used the petrified wood for lithic tools, carved petroglyphs in the basalt cliffs, and lived here by fishing or agriculture.

Nearby is the Wanapum campground for visitors to stay and be able to explore the ground over the course of a few days. Near the Interpretive center is a Gem shop where visitors can buy souvenirs and stones for their collections. There is collecting permitted on Saddle Mountain 14 miles away where collectors can gather up to 25 pounds a day or 250 pounds a year for personal use.

Walnut ( http://www.treeleavesoracle.org/treelore/?p=11050). Gingko Tree Petrified Forest ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 - Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf  and Prince Cian.  Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 29, 2016.  To read the adventures, visit  http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007.   To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews.  All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com - by Leaf McGowan  and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

Walnut ( http://www.treeleavesoracle.org/treelore/?p=11050). Gingko Tree Petrified Forest ( http://www.technogypsie.com/reviews/?p=25979). Northern Exposure: Chronicle 24 – Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf and Prince Cian. Adventures in Washington. Photos taken March 29, 2016. To read the adventures, visit http://www.technogypsie.com/chronicles/?p=20007. To read reviews, visit: www.technogypsie.com/reviews. All photos and articles (c) 2015/2016 Technogypsie.com – by Leaf McGowan and Thomas Baurley. All rights reserved.

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